“Umbrella” – The Occult Masonic Connection

By Roger Marshall*

“If music is used outside of God’s intent, i.e., to promote sex, violence and the occult, it can tear down the very fabric of a society.” 1

Christian News review

“Pop music is sex and you have to hit them [teenagers] in the face with it” 2

Andrew Oldham, manager of the Rolling Stones

The sex in your face philosophy, delineated above by Andrew Oldham, still prevails in much of today’s pop music culture. Rihanna’s highly acclaimed, Grammy Award winning single “Umbrella”, from her Good Girl Gone Bad album, is no exception. On top of that, the music video is also punctuated with occult imagery.

Rihanna herself told her music video director Chris Applebaum that she was prepared to “Take more chances. Musically, lyrically and even visually” and assured him that she was prepared to do something “sexy” in the “Umbrella” music video. 3

That desire of hers to do something sexy has been accomplished in the music video in no uncertain terms.

Rihanna UmbrellaIn reviewing the music video of “Umbrella”, the feminist website “Femtique: feminist critique of pop media” has observed:For the rest of the music video, Rihanna subjects herself to utter objectification. It is the sexual fantasy all men are wanting . . . a “good girl gone bad” — that’s the name of her entire album, by the way. The [accompanying] snapshot is one of the most sexually submissive posses she performs in the video. There are many parts of the video in which she dances around the umbrella as if the umbrella was some phallic sculpture to be worshiped. While she dances around the umbrella in between her legs, she taunts and chants to the video watcher by saying ‘Baby come into me’ repetitively…”4

The music video and pop culture blog, Obtusity, observes: “At about 2 minutes and 30 seconds into this glossy new video, a nearly-nude Rihanna poses provocatively inside a huge triangle. But long before that blatant moment of female sexuality director Chris Applebaum establishes “Umbrella” as a multi-faceted metaphor. From the way Rihanna’s short skirt mimics the look of an open umbrella to the suggestive way she places a closed one between her legs, the artist presents her femininity as a sensual and protective attraction.”5

The Triangle/Pyramid as a Phallic Symbol

As mentioned earlier, during Rihanna’s “Umbrella” music video she poses provocatively in the nude, covered with nothing but body paint, in a huge triangle/pyramid. Since (as the commentators cited earlier have clearly shown) the umbrella is used as a “multi-faceted metaphor” representing at one and the same time the male sex organ (phallus) and her skirt under which is the female sex organ, could it be that the triangle/pyramid also has a symbolic sexual meaning? When we search the occult literature the answer is yes.
Triangle_Ra_Encircled_Seattle.gif (2077 bytes)
Masonic author, R. Swinburne Clymer, in speaking of the Masonic symbolism of the triple Tau within the triangle states: “The Phallus, or Lingam, and the Yoni, the male and female emblems of generation, are found in the triangle and the tau.” 6

(For more information on the phallic nature of the pyramid see appendix, Note A)



Seal_Solomon_Conjure_Demons.jpg (6030 bytes) Masonic_Emblem_Seattle.gif (2794 bytes)
Rihanna in Triangle/Pyramid 
Compass & Square

During  one of Rihanna’s postures in the triangle/pyramid she forms what appears to be  the out line of an inverted triangle/pyramid, if that is the case it proves to be yet another Masonic occult sex symbol known as the Hexagram, which is the same as the Masonic Compass and Square (for more information on this see appendix, Note B)
Masonic author, Albert Mackey, tells of the sexual connotation of the hexagram: “The triangle pointing downward is a female symbol corresponding to the yoni and the upward pointing triangle is the male, the lingam … When the two triangles are interlaced, it represents the union of the active and passive forces in nature; it represents the male and female elements.” 7
In other words the interlacing triangles of the hexagram depict sexual intercourse.
The same is true of the compass and square emblem of Freemasonry. Albert Pike explains this fact to members of the 32nd Degree. He wrote: “The Compass, therefore, is the Hermetic Symbol of the Creative Deity [the phallus], and the Square of the productive [the yoni]…” 8

Standing under her “Umbrella”

The erection and worship of phallic monuments/images (known as obelisks in Egypt and there constructed as towering stone columns capped with a pyramid) was common place throughout the ancient Near East. Such practices were strongly condemned by God (Leviticus 26: 1; Jer. 43:13; Micah 5:13) but unfortunately they still penetrated the Jewish faith (I Kings 14:23; 2 Kings 17: 9-12; cf. 2 Kings 18:4; 23:14). In the Bible these phallic images were identified as “standing images” (Hebrew: Matzebah). The term speaks at one and the same time of the erect “standing” stone monument and the erect “standing” male sex organ (phallus) which the image represented (See Appendix Note A, p. 2).

In occult circles it is said that the sublime posture for sex magick is to have the female on top the male (the so called “goddess position”) with the male phallus “standing” erect in the female vagina/yoni. 9  Could this be the hidden (occult) imagery and meaning of the line in Rihanna’s song when she sensually calls for her lover to “stand” under her “umbrella”? Personally, bearing everything in mind which has been discussed so far, I think it is and that it is graphically portrayed in the music video when, Rihanna, with her legs sprawled open holds a closed umbrella in an erect position standing from the base line of the floor vertically up to and between the mid-line of her genital area, upon which she slowly and provocatively descends on the perpendicular line of the erect standing umbrella in what appears to be the simulation of the sex act upon a phallus. The imagery is complete when, on her knees and haunches with her legs straddled apart, in the mid point of the triangle’s base line and at the bottom of the plane of the perpendicular line, she bows over her head as if to kiss the base line with her two arms extended back touching the two sides of the triangle to form the outline of an inverted triangle/Masonic square (the yoni). As Masonic author, R.H. MacKenzie, states: “among Egyptians, the base [of the triangle] represented Osiris, or the Male Principle; the perpendicular, Isis, or the Female Principle…”10

The article entitled Free Masonry Proven to Worship Satan, its Symbols Venerate the Sex Act   notes that“in Masonic symbolism, the sex act is portrayed as the union of the perpendicular and the base line of the triangle” 11

Scene from Rihanna’s “Umbrella” music video ‏‏ **

When we connect all the dots in light of this analysis thusfar, Rihanna’s provocative dancing throughout the “Umbrella” music video (flanked by men wallowing in the rain) and her sexy, seductive taunts towards the end of the video when she, almost in an orgasmic tone says: “Ooh baby it’s raining” and beckons with her index finger to the video watcher to “Baby come into me”, smacks of  an ancient pagan sex ritual (also enshrined in the teachings of Freemasonry) which obligated a woman to offer her body to a stranger at least once in her life time. As Dr. Sanger Brown II, Assistant Physician at Bloomingdale Hospital, points out: “A custom which shows even more clearly that prostitution was held as a sacred duty to women was that in Babylonia every woman, of high rank or low, must at one time in her life prostitute herself to any stranger who offered money. In ‘Ancient Sex Worship’ we read: ‘There was a temple in Babylonia where every female had to perform once in her life a (to us) strange act of religion, namely, prostitution with a stranger. The name of it was Bit-Shagatha, or ‘The Temple,’ the ‘Place of Union.’ ” 12

In keeping with this conclusion arrived at heretofore, one observer said: “It is so obvious, but I’ll just mention it for no one did before: If you read “ella ella eh eh eh eh eh eh” backwards, it says, “he he he.. alle alle” alle is german, in english “all” so she is singing: “you can stand under my umbrella, hehehe, everybody is. And just something to add:
Virgin Records has some nasty symbols also! For instance one of their symbols [is] something like this freemason sign, which was looking like a woman (virgin) with spread open legs …also, this is talked about in this song. She is the virgin that spreads her legs.” 13



Virgin Records logo  Rihanna during a Feb. 2008 concert in Dublin***


Interestingly enough, and reminiscent of the rock song: “We sold our souls for Rock’n’ Roll”, Rihanna has been highly rewarded monetarily both on the international stage and even in her homeland Barbados for her “Umbrella” song and music video.

Keeping in mind what we have learnt thus far PR-Inside.com Entertainment News notes: “R&B singer/songwriter THE DREAM has hinted RIHANNA’s chart smash UMBRELLA has a dirtier meaning behind it, because he penned the song using the word simply as a “metaphor”. The Def Jam artist – real name Terius Youngdell Nash – has written songs for stars like B2K and Mya, but points to Umbrella’s more adult-orientated theme which he penned in just 12 minutes. He says, ‘That’s right, (Umbrella took) 12 of them nice lil’ minutes. I’ve gotten to the point where songwriting is like freestyling – you enter the booth and let it come out. I’ll use certain things for metaphors, like ‘Umbrella’… ‘Once I get the thing I’m attaching the song with, then I’m running all the other tricks through the song to create that element’ ” 14

Whereas the Bible warns Christian youth to “flee youthful lusts” (2Tim. 2: 22), songs and music videos like “Umbrella” are designed to arouse youthful lusts, particularly sexual lusts, in this our lust saturated world. The fact of arousing sexual lust is borne out by comments from some of Rihanna’s male fans. In responding to the symbolism of her “Umbrella” hit song one fan said: “She is gorgeous. If I wasn’t married, I’d find my way under her umbrella too…haha. I really like this song…”15 yet another said: “The umbrella is her skirt, and the rain is, well….lets not go there. It’s a pop song about sex….just like 99 million other pop songs about sex.” 16 Still another, this time a professed consultant for several music labels in Chicago, who describes himself as one who has “been involved in hip-hop off and on for about ten years and have many friends in the industry” also says that “Umbrella” is “really about sex” 17

Understanding the Occult Masonic Connection

Finally, the question must be asked: Why is there such apparent use of Masonic symbolism in “Umbrella”?Answer: Jay-Z (Rihanna’s boss and mentor) from all the available evidence is himself a Freemason who is deeply involved in the occult. His music/music videos communicate his  beliefs. The website theforbiddenknowledge.com observes: “It is a trademark of most proud Masons to leave key symbols veiled into pictures and also to use various keywords in speeches or secret handshakes.”

In fact, the triangle or pyramid (the“R.O.C.”/“Diamond”) is Jay-Z’s own peculiar grand hailing sign and that of his hip-hop comrades Kanye West and Nas et al, which they throw up and flash at will. Of this practice the website Illuminati Archives notes: “When the symbol is held against the face it is vital that the left eye be featured prominently within the pyramid shape. It is deliberately meant to match the eye at the top of the Masonic pyramid.” 18  This pyramid which is found on the back of the US one dollar bill bears the eye of the Egyptian sun-god Horus (see appendix C) and is actually the insignia of the Illuminati (anoverarching secret society that controls Freemasonry) – the so called “illumined” or “enlightened” ones who follow Lucifer “the light bearer.”

In its conspiracy to abolish Christianity and Christian morality the Illuminati has long espoused the objectification of women as displayed in 1789 during the French Revolution (engineered by an Illuminati conspiracy) when a half-naked prostitute was placed on the altar of the Cathedral of Notre Dame and extolled as the ‘Goddess of Reason.’19

Jay-Z holding up the pyramid with the eye of Horus  Masonic pyramid on US one dollar bill with eye of Horus  Compass & Square with the eye of  Horus


Further still, Jay-Z’s recording company, Roc-a-fella records, was named after Illuminist and New World Order architect David Rockefeller.20 Additionally, his Rocawear company logo is the astrological symbol of Virgo and alchemical symbol for Mercury which are both employed in the Masonic Craft. 21

One observer, DocMoreau (a twenty plus years hip hop vet and Jay-Z fan), on the website Above Top Secret.com notes: “There are numerous accounts surrounding Jay-Z and illuminati symbolism in his lyrics and videos. While much of it seems to be conjecture, there is enough ‘truth’ in the findings that the story continues to have legs. Perhaps they are examples of overzealous attempts by Jay-Z to seem ‘connected’, or perhaps they are examples of him actually being so.

“However, here is one example that is not conjecture. In his 1996 song D’Evils, from his debut album, the chorus is a sample that states: ‘Illuminati want my mind, soul, and my body. Secret society, tryin to keep they eye on me’

“The whole song is about rising through organized crime, but the following lyrics give some insight to his mindstate:

‘That’s right it’s wicked, that’s life I live it
Ain’t asking for forgiveness for my sins, endz
I break bread with the late heads, picking their brains for angles on
all the evils that the game’ll do
It gets dangerous, money and power is changing us
And now we’re lethal, infected with D’Evils…’

“More examples of Jay-z’s use of occult/illuminati/masonic symbolism can be found extensively throughout his work. So either Jay-z was ‘enlightened’ or he himself accumulated a vast knowledge of the esoteric on his own. Either way, he is spot on with his use of symbolism. Plus his reputed cocaine dealings in his past (glorified in his lyrics) point to at least some connection to the ‘shadow government’ and the CIA. Jay-z is connected, that much is for sure…There are many others out there questioning Jay-Z and his possible connection to the Illuminati. A simple Google search will unearth many discussions on the topic. So yes, I believe that Rhianna’s Umbrella song probably does have ‘something’ more to it” 22 (For further insight into why Freemasonry would be appealing to Black Hip Hop artists like Jay – Z see appendix, Note D)

Even the imagery, in which the umbrella is used as a sex symbol representing at one and the same time the male sex organ and the woman’s skirt under which is the female sex organ, is not without Masonic significance as it is in keeping with the androgynous Masonic/occultic doctrine of Baphomet.

According to the Creed of the Masonic Gnostic Catholic Church (one of which is located in Barbados on River Road) also known as the Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.) “Baphomet can be seen as the Dialectic Union of Opposites… the sperm and egg united in the zygote; Yod the Father and Heh the Mother united in Vav the Son… the Androgyne, the Hermaphrodite… the double-headed eagle of the Freemasons… the Demiourgos which manifests in the Middle Space between the male Great Power and the female Great Thought… the Sun and Moon conjoined; the Point [the phallus] within the Circle[the vagina]… the Hexagram (as union of Fire & Water)… the Unicursal Hexagram (as Sun [male/female] and Moon [female/male] united by the 4 Elements)… the Emblem of Venus[female]; the Emblem of Mars[male]… the Square [female] and Compasses [male]…” 23

This doctrine allows for all sorts of sexual immorality among Masons and other occultists.

In 1914, the infamous occultist Aleister Crowley, a 33˚ Mason and the self styled “Beast whose number is 666”, took over leadership of the O.T.O. in Britain and Ireland. He was an influential member in several occult organizations, including the Golden Dawn. His influence extends into much of today’s pop music culture.  Crowley’s stated purpose for the O.T.O. was “to restore Christianity to its real status as a solar-phallic religion.”24

Baphomet by Lévi
Baphomet with breast of a woman
and erect phallus/caduceus 
Aleister Crowley wearing a
triangle/pyramid hat


One Rihanna fan that saw her perform “Umbrella” at the February, 2008 Brit awards said: “Last week Rihanna performed at the Brit awards, and she was inside a neon lit pyramid for the entire performance, with an animated backdrop of rising pyramids. I thought it was odd at the time and completely irrelevant to the song. It was a duet with a band called the Klaxons…The rest of the show was full of occult symbology, with a winged reptile over the award rostrum.” 25

In regard to the performance in question, it is worth noting that there was flashing blue laser light emitting from the apex of the neon lit pyramid. The light came on and flashed brilliantly every time she sang the line “When the sun shines, we’ll shine together…” Simultaneously, the lighted outline of the pyramid turned to green, and green laser lights flashed on the stage bathing the pyramid and the darkened stage in brilliant green. 26 To the observant eye the pyramid seems to be a depiction of the pyramid at the back of the “green back” US one dollar bill, which is based on the Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt, and as noted earlier, is the insignia of the Illuminati/Masonic conspiracy for world control. Even Rihanna’s garb (a tribal-print hooded gown) used during the performance was probably not without occult significance either, as it bore some resemblance to the hooded robes worn by occultists like Druids, Satanists or members of the Golden Dawn. While one fan approvingly said the gown looked “bizarre”27, the celebrity entertainment site Faded Youth Blog in a review of the performance said “She appeared in a hooded cloak on a platform above her collaborators Klaxons, who were wearing primitive sci-fi-style costumes, as if they were all part of a post-apocalyptic pagan pop cult.” 28




From left to right the lighted pyramid at Giza, Egypt, strikingly similar to what Rihanna performed in at the Brit awards. The Great Seal of the USA with the shining eye of Horus the sun-god of Egypt


Incidentally, the Klaxons, who backed Rihanna at the Brit awards, is a rock/new-rave band that are also into the occult and have cut songs revering Aleister Crowley and the Order of the Golden Dawn! Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia in describing the Klaxons musical style said: “Klaxons’ music is often supernatural and magic-realist in theme, as shown in a number of song titles and lyrical content. Examples of this are “As Above, So Below” (favourite saying of Aleister Crowley), “Atlantis to Interzone” (a William Burroughs reference) [and] “Magick” (Crowley)…” 29

Interestingly enough, there is currently (at the time of writing this article) a discussion on line asking the question: “Music Artist, Rihanna- 4th degree pagan?” The question was raised by a woman who described herself as one who has some nominal experience in pagan religious teaching/training. She indicates: “I witnessed a (semi-Greek) Masonic ritual…the Masonic rituals I’ve experience have been set up in Greek style or Egyptian style.” Her question goes as follows: “Is Music Artist, Rihanna- a 4th degree pagan initiate? I was born catholic but am not so naiive that I don’t educate myself beyond Catholicism. I read somewhere in pagan books that some initiated pagan women wear belts on their thighs that symbolize (also to fellow pagans) what degree initiate they are. Since Rihanna was clearly showing off the belts on her legs during her aired concert recently, are these the same leg belts I’ve read of but never seen in pagan culture? Can any of the pagans on here give me a serious answer?” 30

On top of the issue of   wearing what appears to be pagan initiate belts, Rihanna has been photographed (as seen below) flashing the occult hand sign known as the “Il Cornuto” which stands for the pagan god Pan and more so “allegiance to Baphomet/Satan”!



Backmasked messages

Further to all this, there appears to be some evidence that backmasked messages (words only heard when the song is played backwards) with sexual obscenities are on the “Umbrella” song track. 31 If this charge stands, this would yet be another occult technique that has been employed by several rock bands in the past.

For example, the song Stairway To Heaven by the occult rock group Led Zeppelin, when played backwards, reveal the words: “Satan is Lord”.  “I’ll give you 6-6-6.”   “Jesus betrayed us”.  “I sing because I live with Satan”. 32

Another example is the song We’ll see if eternal life is meant to be by the group ELO/Electric Light Orchestra. The backmasked message says: “For He is the nasty one – Christ, you’re infernal.” 33

Jay-Z himself has been accused of having a backmasked message on a song which says: “666 Murder, Murder Jesus”. 34    However, some point out that the backmasked message is really the work of Underground DJ Danger Mouse who remixed an album from Jay – Z’s “The Black Album” and the Beatles’ “The White Album” and called it “The Grey Album” on which he edited the voice of Jay – Z to make him say the villainous words mentioned. 35

Danger Mouse Presents The Grey Album

Be that as it may, it appears that the whole idea of backward messages may have come from Alister Crowley, who trained his disciples to think backwards by writing backwards, listening to phonograph records reversed, speaking backwards and walking backwards. Therefore (as Crowley instructed) instead of saying, “I am he” one would say, “eh ma I”.36


The Christian Response

Jesus’ statement that the world loves its own (John 15: 19) explains why non-Christians would sing the praises of Rihanna’s accomplishments (regardless of her song’s immoral overtones). On the other hand, the Bible commands Christians to “Have nothing to do with the fruitless deeds of darkness, but rather expose them” (Eph. 5:11).  Instead of singing the praises of Rihanna’s accomplishments the Christian community needs to speak out against the message of this kind of music since it is diametrically opposed to the high moral standards of the Judaeo-Christian faith which Christians are enjoined to up-hold and defend.

Further still and has been rightly suggested, we also need to pray for Rihanna and many more like her that “…God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth, and that they will come to their senses and escape from the trap of the devil, who has taken them captive to do his will.” (2 Tim. 2: 25 – 26)


*Roger Marshall is executive director of Project PROBE Ministries a Barbadian Christian apologetics organisation.



End Notes

  1. Christian News review (July, 2007) posted at http://home.hiwaay.net/~contendr/2001/8-1-2001.html
  2. Time, April 28, 1967, p. 54
  3. Rihanna’s ‘Painful’ ‘Umbrella’ Shoot Kept Her On Her Toes, MTV video music Awards, posted at: http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1568860/20070904/rihanna.jhtm
  4. Rihanna: “Umbrella”, June 29th, 2007, posted at http://femtique.net/2007/06/29/rihanna-umbrella/
  5. Rain Over Me: Rihanna feat. Jay-Z “Umbrella”, April 30th, 2007, posted at   http://obtusity.blogspot.com/2007/04/rain-over-me-rihanna-feat-jay-z.html
  6. Clymer, The Mysteries of Osiris or Ancient Egyptian Initiation, Quakertown, PA, The Philosophical Publishing Company, 1951, p. 131
  7. Mackey, The Symbolism of Freemasonry, 1869, p. 195, 219, 361; also Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, 1871, p. 13; also Wes Cook, Editor, Did You Know? Vignettes in Masonry from the Royal Arch Mason Magazine, Missouri Lodge For Research, 1965, p. 132
  8. Morals and Dogma, p. 850-1; cited in Freemasonry Proven to worship Satan, its symbols venerate the sex act – Study of Symbols pt. 5 of 5 posted at http://www.theforbiddenknowledge.com/symbology/5o5.htm
  9. See Rituals for Sex Magick, posted at http://members.aol.com/darkmistress1/page66.htm
  10. Kenneth R.H. MacKenzie, The Royal Masonic Cyclopaedia of History, Rites, Symbolism, and Biography , New York, J.W. Bouton, 1877, p. 743
  11. Posted at http://www.theforbiddenknowledge.com/symbology/5o5.htm , emphasis mine.
  12. The Sex Worship and Symbolism of Primitive Races posted at http://www.worldwideschool.org , emphasis mine.
  13. Umbrella is this song masonic or something? posted at http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread337743/pg3
  14. The Dream Hints at Dirty Meaning behind Rihanna’s Umbrella, August 8th, 2007, posted athttp://www.pr-inside.com/entertainment-blog/2007/08/08/the-dream-hints-at-dirty-meaning/  (emphasis mine)
  15. Rihanna: “Umbrella”, June 29th, 2007, posted at http://femtique.net/2007/06/29/rihanna-umbrella/
  16. Umbrella is this song masonic or something? posted at http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread337743/pg1
  17. Ibid
  18. David Rockefeller and Jay-Z Rocafella connections by EmceeArSn posted at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNBnKjfqG-M
  19. The Illuminati – A Brief History posted at http://trickytrickywhiteboy.blogspot.com/2007/10/illuminati-brief-history.html
  20. David Rockefeller and Jay-Z Rocafella connections by EmceeArSn posted at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNBnKjfqG-M
  21. Is Jay Z a Free Mason? posted at http://www.illuminatiarchives.org/?p=293
  22. Umbrella is this song masonic or something? posted at http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread337743/pg1
  23. The Invisible Basilica: The Creed of the Gnostic Catholic Church posted at http://www.hermetic.com/sabazius/creed_egc.htm
  24. The Templar’s Reich Milieu posted at http://user.cyberlink.ch/~koenig/2006/pro/pene.htm
  25. Umbrella is this song masonic or something? posted at http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread337743/pg4
  26. Video Rihanna and The Klaxons – Umbrella – BRIT Awards 2008 posted at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNbGvwODrLs
  27. Ibid
  28. Rihanna Takes the Stage posted at http://www.fadedyouthblog.com/23910/rihanna-takes-the-stage/  (emphasis mine)
  29. Klaxons posted at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klaxons
  30. “Music Artist, Rihanna- 4th degree pagan?” posted at http://www.yelp.com/topic/brooklyn-music-artist-rihanna–4th-degree-pagan
  31. http://www.nme.com/video/id/wuSs3XXs7rs/search/backmasking   For an insightful study on backmasking see Ted Schwartz and Duane Empey’s
    Is Your Family Safe? Satanism, Zondervan Books, © 1988, pp. 144 – 159
  32. Occult Stepping Stones to Witchcraft posted at http://patholliday.com/otherexcerpts/thewalkingdead.html
  33. Ibid
  34. Umbrella is this song masonic or something? posted at http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread337743/pg1
  35. Preacher Accuses Jay-Z of Promoting Devil Worship posted at http://www.rollingstone.com/rockdaily/index.php/2006/09/28/clip-of-the-day-preacher-accuses-jay-z-of-promoting-devil-worship/  See also The Truth Behind Hip Hop Exposed posted at http://www.clarkyboy.com/hiphop.htm
  36. Manual on Magic pp. 481-482; cited in Occult Stepping Stones to Witchcraft posted on http://patholliday.com/otherexcerpts/thewalkingdead.html

**Outline of inverted triangle on page 3 is traced by the author from Rihanna’s posture in upright triangle/pyramid.
***Picture on page 4 from Racy Rihanna performs in an eye-popping S&M outfit posted at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/showbiz/showbiznews.html?in_article_id=521694&in_page_id=1773

© All rights reserved 2008 Project PROBE Ministries




Note A, p. 2.
Phallic nature of the pyramid

Obelisks crowned with the pyramid-shaped Benbenet/Benben

From the booklet Pockets Ancient Egypt under the heading Sacred Shapes we get the following information:
“According to legend, the rays of the sun fell first of all upon the primeval mound, or ben-ben. This sacred shape was recreated in obelisks and may have been the reason for the structure of pyramids” (Pockets Ancient Egypt, © 1995 Dorling Kindersley Ltd., London, p. 103).

From the article The Benben Stone & Obelisks posted on the Discovery Channel website we read: “Some scholars believe the conical Benben stone represented the very first mound of earth and marked the point where the first rays of sunlight fell from Re [the sun god]. The conical shape marked the Pharoah’s way to heaven by ascending the rays of the sun.

“Others believe the stone was actually an iron-rich meteorite [rock] and represented the seed of the earlier god, Atum [identified as one and the same as Re/Ra/Osiris] who created the earth through masturbation: the word ‘benben’ means ‘to copulate’. The pyramid-shaped cap on an obelisk is called a Benbenet and, combined with the shaft, obelisks could represent Atum’s divine phallus and his seed” (posted at http://www.discoverychannel.co.uk/egypt/monuments/benben/index.shtml ).

The pyramid is thus a huge Benbenet/ Benben. It is a phallic symbol representing sun worship through copulation (i.e. the act of sexual procreation) and ultimately the “rock” (penis) of the sun god Atum-Re [Ra] that begat the earth “through masturbation.” By extension the pyramid represented the “rock” (phallus) of the Pharaoh who was believed to be resurrected (rather reincarnated) through his seed or offspring, much like Osiris was resurrected/reincarnated as Horus.

Interestingly enough Jay-Z’s pyramid symbol is also called the “R.O.C”. (“rock”)

Note B, p. 2.

The Compass and Square
And its relationship to the vertical and inverted pyramids/triangles of the Hexagram

Zachary P. Gremillion, 90˚ Mason, passed Master Mason of O.J. Dunn Lodge # 85, adept of York and Scottish Rite Prince Hall Freemasonry, and founder of The Ancient Grand Lodge of Khamet and the Imperial Cushite Order of Ancient African Freemasons and nobles of the Mystic Shrine, in giving a partially veiled interpretation of the Masonic Compass and Square, in his book African Origins of Freemasonry, p. 239, said: “The most sacred and well known symbol of Freemasonry [is] the square the compass and the letter “G”. The square is a symbol of righteousness [a veiled interpretation intended to mislead all but the adepts. For the unveiled interpretation see Albert Pike’s (recognized by Gremillion as “the most knowledgeable American Freemason”*) statement on p. 2 of this article] and when turned upside down forms a pyramid. The compass is a spiritual symbol and is also a symbol of the Great Pyramid. When lines are drawn upon the top of the square and the most bottom parts of the compass a six pointed star is formed. The six pointed star is a sacred symbol of the ancient Israelites and also the ancient Egyptians called the star of Osiris, etc…”

* African Origins of Freemasonry: The True History of Freemasonry in Africa and its Resurrection among Africans in the Diaspora, Introduction, p. XI

Note C, p. 5.

Eye of Horus, Eye of Ra (Udjat, Wedjat)
Click for enlargement

“Designed to resemble the eye of a falcon, this symbol is called the Eye of Ra or Eye of Horus represents the right eye of the Egyptian Falcon God Horus. As the udjat (or utchat), it represented the sun, and was associated with the Sun God Ra (Re).

The mirror image, or left eye, represented the moon, and the God Tehuti (Thoth). (A very similar concept of the sun and moon as eyes appears in many religious traditions)

According to legend, the left eye was torn from Horus by his murderous brother Seth, and magically restored by Thoth, the God of magick. After the restoration, some stories state, Horus made a gift of the eye to Osiris, which allowed this solar deity to rule the underworld. The story of this injury is probably an allusion to the phases of the moon as the eye which is “torn out” every month.

Together, the eyes represent the whole of the universe, a concept similar to that of the Taoist Yin-yang symbol. Spiritually, the right eye reflects solar, masculine energy, as well as reason and mathematics. The left eye reflects fluid, feminine, lunar energy, and rules intuition and magick. Together, they represent the combined, transcendent power of Horus.

The Eye of Horus was believed to have healing and protective power, and it was used as a protective amulet, and as a medical measuring device, using the mathematical proportions of the eye to determine the proportions of ingredients in medical preparations) to prepare medications.

The Masonic all seeing eye, the Eye of Providence symbol found on American money, and our modern Rx pharmaceutical symbol are all descended from the Eye of Horus” (posted at: http://altreligion.about.com/library/glossary/symbols/bldefswedjat.ht )

With regard to the same eye of Horus which is also depicted in the Masonic Compass and Square, Masonic author Zachary P. Gremillion said: “The letter “G” when turned sideways looks like an eye. Thus it represents of [sic] the Supreme Being of the Universe. The all seeing eye of the Creator. The All Seeing Eye is an ancient African symbol for God. It is seen on the ruins of the temples of Khamet” (African Origins of Freemasonry, p. 239).



Note D, p. 7

The Afrocentric roots of Freemasonry’s influence on
Black Hip Hop artistes

Jay- Z giving Nas the Lion’s paw Masonic handshake*

Freemasonry is defined as “a peculiar system of morality, veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols.”

The website theforbiddenknowledge.com observes: “It is a trademark of most proud Masons to leave key symbols veiled into pictures and also to use various keywords in speeches or secret handshakes.”

One may ask: What does Afrocentrism have to do with all this? Answer: a whole lot. Many hip hop artists are under the influence of Afrocentric philosophy and teaching. In acknowledging that “Most of the symbols of the Masonic Order came directly from the Egyptian Mystery System” (African Origins of Freemasonry: The True History of Freemasonry in Africa and its Resurrection among Africans in the Diaspora, p.10) there is a belief among several Afrocentrists that since Africans are the true “mothers and fathers of the ‘lodges of knowledge’ throughout the world” (African Origins of Freemasonry, p.21) then black people should re-claim Freemasonry as there own heritage and legacy. As Zachary P. Gremillion, a 32˚ Prince Hall Freemason and 90˚ Mason and founder of The Ancient Grand Lodge of Khamet (Egypt) and the Imperial Cushite Order of Ancient African Freemasons said: “Before the organization of the Grand Lodge of England or any other grand Masonic order of Rosicrucians (Rose-Croix) and the Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (Shriners), the supreme honorable and mystical teachings of Freemasonry had its origins among the ancient Black civilizations of the east. These sublime teachings were carried in what is called the Mystery schools. These Mystery schools started in Africa of Old i.e., the African Eden. The respective lands were: Egypt (Khamet) Ethiopia (Kush), Morocco…West Africa (Ghana, Mali, Songhai, etc.) where noble tribes such as the Dogon of Mali held secret brotherhoods with great hidden knowledge…Their age old knowledge was responsible for creating the modern-day Masonic order…the true history of the ancient African society is bottled up in the symbols of the lodges and the literature of its libraries” (African Origins of Freemasonry, pp. 23-24).

Again Mr. Gremillion says: “…Masonry came from [the] early Africans in Egypt and the Great lakes region…that Freemasonry was carried down from them (Africans) to the present” (African Origins of Freemasonry, p. 26). Yet again he said: “Freemasonry was founded in Africa among Black people in ancient times” (African Origins of Freemasonry, p. 27). Further still he says: “Therefore, being that our ancestors invented the Order of Freemasonry or invented the symbols and principles of what became modern Masonry we have an undeniable right to reestablish the ancient African mystery system that is called [the] Masonic order in modern times. We the original Free Masons and our authority is derived from the Ancient Grand Lodge of Khamet [Egypt], which is established to re instituted (sic) our original claim to the knowledge of Freemasonry which has been hidden from us for over 500 years…that the Black man was the original man and founder/father of the Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons” (African Origins of Freemasonry, pp. 104-105).

Aware that they are people in academia who dispute his and other Afrocentrists claims about the African origins civilization of Freemasonry (in particular), Mr. Gremillion, on citing the supportive woks of various Caucasian Masonic authorities,   puts forward the following argument: “The scholars that debate the historical accuracy of ‘Afrocentrism’ state that African Americans have no claim to Egypt because most of the ‘slaves’ were taken from West Africa. The debaters that make the above claim do so not in concern for historical accuracy, but to take any claim of a great heritage from the ex-slaves of America and to keep us in a state of total ignorance. A person that does not his or her true heritage and culture does not know his or her future. They can be secretly made a slave again…[what the scholars] will not tell you is that the West African empires were descendants and brothers/sisters of the east Africans. Groups such as the Yoruba, Ashanti, Dogon, etc…The Dogon of Mali and the Yoruba have cosmologies and teaching similar to the ancient Egyptians…There is a secret society in West Africa called the Purrah or Purroh…which descended from Khamet (Egypt)” (African Origins of Freemasonry, pp. 32-33, emphasis added).

This kind of romanticism about Egyptology and Freemasonry among Afrocentrists is very potent and offers “good” reasons (among other influencing factors) for Jay-Z’s and Nas’ et alia involvement in the Masonic Order.

Among the other influencing factors, mentioned above, is the Nation of Islam (inaugurated by Noble Drew Ali and founded by Wallace Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad) and one of its offshoots; The Nation of Gods and Earths a.k.a. the Five-Percent nation/Five-Percenters (founded by Clarence 13X, a disciple of Elijah Muhammad). As it turns out, both Noble Drew Ali and Elijah Muhammad were Freemasons! Wallace Fard Muhammad was also possibly a Freemason as well (see African Origins of Freemasonry, pp. 245,249,250).
From the website Abovetopsecret.com we get the following information about the Five-Percent nation:

“Origin of Five-Percent title

“Five Percenters also teach that Black people specifically, and the entire world population more generally, can be divided into three groups:
The 85%, easily led in the wrong direction hard to be led in the right direction, who are the humble masses, mentally deaf, dumb , and blind to the truth about themselves and the world in which they live.

“The 10%, who understand much of the truth but use it to their advantage to keep the 85% under their control through religion, politics, entertainment, economics, and other methods.

“The 5%, who are the enlightened divine beings, having repossessed knowledge of the truth regarding the foundations of life and of oneself, and seek to punitively liberate the 85% through education.

“The percentages presented, according to most Five Percenters, are not meant to be exact but are instead meant to represent the public, the religious and political rulers, and the few truly enlightened people on earth, respectively. The numbers used point out common traits to identify the members of these three groups and can be fully understood using the language of Supreme Mathematics.

“Supreme Mathematics

“The Supreme Mathematics, in the teachings of the Nation of Gods and Earths, is a system of understanding numbers alongside concepts that are used along with the Supreme Alphabet.[8][5] Despite its name, the Supreme Mathematics is not actually a system of mathematics. It instead is a variety of numerology specific to the theology and philosophy of the the Nation of Gods and Earths, derived from Sufism elements.[2][1]
1. Knowledge 2. Wisdom 3. Understanding 4. Culture/Freedom (40 or more) 5. Power of Refinement 6. Equality 7. God 8. Build/Destroy 9. Born 0. Cipher

“Supreme Alphabet

“In the Nation of Gods and Earths, the Supreme Alphabet is a system of interpreting text and finding deeper meaning in the original 120 Questions written by Elijah Muhammad and Wallace Fard Muhammad by assigning actual meanings to the letters of the Roman alphabet. It was developed by Clarence after splitting from the Nation of Islam, after which he developed his Supreme Understanding.


“From the early 1980s to today, many Five Percenters are found among the American
East Coast, West Coast, and Midwest, in cities such as New York City, Trenton, Philadelphia, Chicago, and Los Angeles, especially among the hip-hop scene. Hip-hop artists such as Tupac Shakur, Rakim, Wu-Tang Clan, Brand Nubian, Sho&Prove, Nas, Prodigy, SHARE3F, Jus Allah, Poor Righteous Teachers, Gang Starr, J-Live and many others had success spreading the theology of the Five Percenters. This spread, in part, uses the language of Supreme Mathematics, which represents universal law and order, and the Supreme Alphabet, which represents universal principles of life, ostensibly to forge solidarity with the inner-city youth through a common language.[8] The main theme of the Five-Percenter doctrine that can be heard on hip-hop records is the teaching that the Original Blackman [sic] is God, the Original Blackwoman [sic] is the planet Earth, and through the inner esoteric powers of the Gods and Earths, the youth can transform and possess its true potential, which seems to overthrow the overbearing oligarchy by becoming just rulers of themselves.

“Many terms that originated as Five-Percenter jargon have been adopted into the hip-hop lexicon as well. For example, the term “G” in hip-hop originally was short for the Five-Percenter greeting of “God,” which, through its spread to the American West Coast and the rise of gangsta hip-hop music, it eventually evolved into “gangsta,” a stretch from its origin. Other popular terms such as “word is bond,” while having significantly older roots than the Five Percenters, were believed to have gained prominence through its use of the term, referring back to the Nation of Islam and the NGE’s shared 120 Degrees.” (posted at: http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread337743/pg2

The Nation of Gods and Earths – The Masonic connection

As I mentioned earlier Clarence 13X, the founder of The Nation of Gods and Earths, was a disciple of the Black Freemason Elijah Muhammad; the founder/prophet of the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad taught his disciples that the Black man is God and the white man is the devil. Over the years a number of rap groups such as “Public Enemy”, “K.R.S. One”, “Cool Moe Dee” and others have promoted the teachings of the Nation of Islam through their songs.

In his book, The African Origins of Freemasonry, Zachary P. Gremillion, while admitting that he did not agree with everything Clarence 13X had to say during a debate encounter they had, he nevertheless commended his work via The Nation of Gods and Earths movement.

In Gremillion’s own words he said: “…I did not agree with everything he [Clarence 13X] said, but I was not willing to dismiss the basis of truth upon which that brother stood. I interpreted the basic premise of what the brother was saying, and summed it up as the following points:

  1. The Blackman is the Original or First Human on the Planet
  2. Hebuilt the first civilizations which spanned from Africa, America and Asia
  3. He was the inventor of Science, mathematics, religion, etc.
  4. Before Europeans emerged the Black man lived in a cultured, righteous world and exercised supreme intellect.
  5. The Black man aided in the development of Europe by giving them knowledge and engaging in trade with them.
  6. The Black man will one day rise to his former glory through knowledge of self and work.


“On those topics I could not disagree with thst brother, and if being a “God” or a “divine being/person” is composed of high levels of intelligence, science, mathematics, spirituality, philosophy, character then history shows that Africoid mankind fit the description. This was not blasphemous or anything new. God-man has been taught in the ancient Proto-Masonic Order or old Mystery Schools since the beginning of time. It is even taught in the Bible by the Messiah Jesus whom quoted it from the book of Psalm (Please see Palms (sic) 82:6-8 and John 10:34-35 [Note: according to this worldview Jesus was also a Black God-man, who “was an initiate of the Egyptian Mystery System” {The African Origins of Freemasonry, p. 109}]).”

Gremillion goes on to say: “The ancient Masonic order of the continent of Africa and those Masonic Mystery Schools of Asia always taught that man could obtain divinity on earth through acquisition of knowledge, understanding, and through workings of discipline in ethics and morality. So I must say again that Fard, Elijah, Clarence 13X was not strange or weird in teaching this doctrine. They (Fard and Elijah) more than likely got the “God-Man” doctrine from their earlier Freemasonic associations” (The African Origins of Freemasonry, pp. 54-55).

That the “God-Man” doctrine mentioned above is indeed part and parcel of Masonic teaching is borne out by yet another Masonic author, this time a white man. J. D. Buck in his book Mystic Masonry, said: “The only personal God Freemasonry accepts is humanity in toto. God (the G.A.O.T.U.) personifies himself, that is expresses that potency of himself which personality is, through man. Humanity therefore is the only personal God that there is” (Mystic Masonry, p. 216).

This background information sheds more light on why Jay-Z refers to himself as the “God MC” and “Jay-HOVA” (a play on the Jehovah; the Biblical name for God; see the Urban Dictionary posted at: http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=jayhova )

In keeping with the first human quest for godhood, as recorded in the Bible (Genesis 3) and the spiritual and moral disaster it brought on the whole human race, the Masonic “God-man” philosophy is similarly wreaking havoc in the hip hop arena. For an insightful critique of this problem see the article: Hip Hop Fridays: The Sins of the God MC by Hadji Williams, posted at: http://www.blackelectorate.com/articles.asp?ID=1410

*for further information on the photo above go to

The Roots and Fruits of the New Apostolic Reformation

By Bob DeWaay

“So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God’s household, having been built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone” (Ephesians 2:19, 20).

This article explores the idea of apostles in the church throughout church history. In it I will show that the restoration/Latter Rain idea that fuels the New Apostolic Reformation (NAR) is unbiblical and dangerous to the well-being of Christians who become part of it. First we will review how the early church understood apostles in church history. Then we will examine the Roman Catholic Church’s teaching about apostolic authority. From there we will examine the ideas of a 17th-century mystic given new life in the Latter Rain movement, and now the NAR.
At a 1996 Fuller Seminary conference hosted by C. Peter Wagner, a movement that Wagner previously labeled “post-denominational” became the New Apostolic Reformation. Besides Wagner himself is another person prominent in the movement—Bill Hamon—who is strongly endorsed by Wagner. Hamon is important, as we will see, because his ministry goes all the way back to the early 1950’s and began on the heels of the Latter Rain Movement.

How the Early Church Understood Apostles

In 97 AD, Clement of Rome wrote an epistle to the church at Corinth. The epistle provides solid evidence that the early church did not believe that the apostles had successors or that new apostles were needed in order to provide direction to the church. At issue was the fact that certain individuals in Corinth challenged the duly constituted elders’ authority; Clement wrote to correct them. Clement’s testimony is remarkable because he likely was the Clement mentioned in Philippians 4:3, whom Paul called a “fellow worker.” Clement mentions the apostles in this passage:

The apostles have preached the Gospel to us from the Lord Jesus Christ; Jesus Christ [has done so] from God. Christ therefore was sent forth by God, and the apostles by Christ. Both these appointments, then, were made in an orderly way, according to the will of God. Having therefore received their orders, and being fully assured by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, and established in the word of God, with full assurance of the Holy Ghost, they went forth proclaiming that the kingdom of God was at hand. And thus preaching through countries and cities, they appointed the first-fruits [of their labours], having first proved them by the Spirit, to be bishops and deacons of those who should afterwards believe.

Although the Roman Catholic Church claims that Clement himself was an apostle of Christ in succession from Peter, Clement claimed no such title and neither did he acknowledge any apostles but the true apostles—the ones Christ appointed personally. What we will see from Clement is that the apostles appointed overseers and elders (the same group), and these were the authorities in the local church. The apostle Paul had given instructions on the qualifications and roles of elders (Acts 20:28 – 31; Titus 1:5-9; 1Timothy 3:1 – 7) and provided for their continuation (2Timothy 2:2). Clement goes on to discuss this:

Our apostles also knew, through our Lord Jesus Christ, and there would be strife on account of the office of the episcopate. For this reason, therefore, inasmuch as they had obtained a perfect fore-knowledge of this, they appointed those [ministers] already mentioned, and afterwards gave instructions, that when these should fall asleep, other approved men should succeed them in their ministry. We are of opinion, therefore, that those appointed by them, or afterwards by other eminent men, with the consent of the whole Church, and who have blamelessly served the flock of Christ in a humble, peaceable, and disinterested spirit, and have for a long time possessed the good opinion of all, cannot be justly dismissed from the ministry. For our sin will not be small, if we eject from the episcopate those who have blamelessly and holily fulfilled its duties. Blessed are those presbyters who, having finished their course before now, have obtained a fruitful and perfect departure [from this world]; for they have no fear lest any one deprive them of the place now appointed them.

Clement did not claim the apostolic authority to intervene, but rather pointed to elders who were appointed according to the standards of the Biblical apostles. It is noteworthy that he used the terms “episcopate” and “presbyters” interchangeably for the same people. Soon the church would develop “bishops” over cities (the “monepiscopate” or single bishop over a city), which was an innovation not endorsed by the Biblical apostles. However, Clement, who had been an associate of Paul, used episkopos (overseers or bishops – KJV) and presbuteros (elders) to describe the same group of people. This is precisely what Paul did in Acts 20:17, 28 when he called the elders together and described them as “overseers.”
By 97 AD, the authorities in the church were not apostles and prophets, but elders who had been appointed according to the standards lain down by the apostles. Those who claim that God always intended there to be authoritative apostles in the church who give binding revelation ignore the fact that the apostles themselves never anticipated that they would have successors and gave no instructions for the qualifications of any such successors. But they did provide qualifications for elders, and these would apply to future generations. Sadly, the fact that there are no qualifications for apostles (other than that they must have seen the risen Lord and have been appointed directly by Him – which qualifications the NAR apostles ignore or reject) has opened to the door the proliferation of apostles around the world, many of whom claim apostolic status even though they do not even have the necessary qualifications to be elders in a local church.

The Roman Catholic Church’s Apostles

As church history progressed, the understanding of church authority as seen in the days of Clement of Rome disappeared very quickly in favor of the monepiscopate and progressed from that unbiblical innovation to the primacy of the Bishop of Rome. This idea eventually led to the Papacy. Later in church history, and in amazing irony, the Roman Catholic Church claimed that Clement was a successor of Peter and had apostolic status. This travesty dishonors the very teachings of Clement himself who taught no such thing.
Roman Catholic innovation removed the status of the Biblical apostles as the foundation of the church and replaced it with a succession of apostles who claimed the liberty to give new, binding revelation to the church. Here is how the Roman Catholic Church explains its own position:

We teach and define that it is a dogma Divinely revealed that the Roman pontiff when he speaks ex cathedra, that is when in discharge of the office of pastor and doctor of all Christians, by virtue of his supreme Apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine regarding faith or morals to be held by the universal Church, by the Divine assistance promised to him in Blessed Peter, is possessed of that infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer willed that his Church should be endowed in defining doctrine regarding faith or morals, and that therefore such definitions of the Roman pontiff are of themselves and not from the consent of the Church irreformable. (Catholic Encyclopedia)

It is ironic that C. Peter Wagner claims we need restored apostles when there have been claimants to the office of apostle going back over 1,000 years. Wagner acknowledges this:

[I]n certain segments of the Church the office of apostle has, indeed, been recognized throughout the past two millennia. The Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican or Episcopal Church and many denominations that have actually incorporated “apostolic” into their name would come to mind as examples. However, just as was true of prophetic movements, the emphases of these apostolic movements had not penetrated the mainstream of what I am calling life-giving evangelical churches that are now the cutting edge of the spread of Christianity. This only began to happen in the 1990’s.

So, with regard to having apostles Wagner sees the Roman Catholic Church not as guilty of unbiblical innovation as Luther and the other Reformers claimed, but as a positive role model for evangelicals. His new “reformation” claims to have many thousands of apostles and prophets. At least Rome put some reigns on apostles in that they only have one at a time and he speaks “ex cathedra” only occasionally. The new apostles are continually speaking new revelations from God.

The Reformation Teaches “Scripture Alone”

The Reformation rightly rejected the authority of the Pope and church tradition and returned to “scripture alone.” This was a return to the true foundation of the church, the Biblical apostles and prophets who speak to us through the Scripture. This means that the decrees of men in church history are not binding on any believer unless those decrees are valid implications and applications of Scripture. This brings up an important point mentioned in the previous issue of CIC: God only binds us to what is inerrant and infallible. Words from men that contain mixture and error and lack the qualities of inspired Scripture cannot be binding on the lives of believers. This truth was at the crux of the Reformation. The words of the Popes do not have this quality nor do those of latter day apostles and prophets.

17th Century Mystic Jane Leade Prophesies of a Coming Elite Church

One of the problems that attended the Reformation was the presence of “enthusiasts” who claimed direct revelation from God. The Reformers universally condemned such persons and movements, but that did not deter them from gaining followers. One who arose a century after the Reformation and who continues to have followers was an English mystic named Jane Leade. Her writings are posted on the Internet by persons who have affiliations with latter day apostles and prophets. She held to a theory of church history that claimed that the seven churches in Revelation stood for seven successive stages of church history. There are some today who still teach this theory. The problem with it is that there is nothing in Revelation itself that indicates John expected his readers to understand it that way. This is a classic case of the reader determining the meaning of the Bible rather than the Spirit-inspired author.
Leade was particularly interested in the church at Philadelphia because Christ found no fault in it. She was involved in a movement called “The Philadelphian Society,” named after that church. In 1679, the Philadelphian Society and the Theosophists published a document containing a 60-point prophecy by Jane Leade (the document has her name as Lead). The document proposes ideas that resurfaced in 1948 in the Latter Rain movement, and, as we shall see, are still being promoted by a key Apostle-prophet of the New Apostolic Reformation.
The first several points of the prophecy are about sealed mysteries that would be revealed only to “worthy searchers.” She claimed that there was an Ark of the Testimony in heaven containing new revelations to be opened during the church age. She wrote under point 8, “The presence of this divine ark, will constitute the Philadelphian Church, and wherever that is, there must the ark of necessity be.” Thus the group was called the “Philadelphian Society” which published “Theosophical Transactions.” She goes on to prophesy of an elite church that would be beyond anything previously known. In fact this church would be a “virgin” that would give birth to the “son” mentioned in Revelation 12:5:

14. Of the stem of DAVID, a virgin church, which hath known nothing of man or of human constitution, is yet to be born. 15. And if it be yet to be born, then it will require some considerable time before it gets out of its minority, and arrives to the full and mature age. 16. The birth of this virgin church was visionally typified to St. JOHN by the great wonder in Heaven bringing forth her first born, that was caught up to the throne of GOD 17. FOR — As a virgin woman brought forth CHRIST after the flesh, so likewise a virgin woman is designed by God, to bring forth the FIRST BORN after the Spirit, who shall be filled with the Holy Ghost and with power. 18. The VIRGIN that is hereto designed, must be as of a pure spirit, so also of a CLARIFIED body, and all over impregnated with the Holy Ghost. 19. This church so brought forth and signed with the mark of the divine name, shall be adorned with MIRACULOUS GIFTS AND POWERS beyond whatever yet hath been. . . . 23. This Catholic and anointed church must be perfectly holy, as CHRIST himself is holy; so that it may worthily bear the name of the Lord our Holiness, and the Lord our Righteousness. 24. Until there be such a church made ready upon the earth, so holy, so catholic, and so anointed, that is without all spot or wrinkle, and that is adorned as a bride to meet her bridegroom, CHRIST will not personally descend to solemnize this marriage, and present the same to his Father.

This prophecy of a perfected church (later called the “many-membered man-child” ) that will be the incarnation of Christ on the earth while Christ remains in heaven sets the stage for the Latter Rain movement in the 20th Century that would make the same claims. Whether that movement got its ideas from Leade or came up with the same heresy independently I cannot say at this time. But the ideas are identical. The church must be perfected on earth before Christ can return, and this shall be accompanied with miracles and power greater that at any time in church history—including Pentecost.
The Latter Rain Movement: Five Fold Ministry Elitism

At the very beginning of the 20th century a man named David Wesley Myland used the term “Latter Rain” to describe the Pentecostal revival that was going on. He allegorized Joel 2:23 that spoke of God blessing the agricultural harvest in Israel to create a theory of church history. In Israel’s agricultural cycles, there were the spring rains (early rain) and the fall rains (the latter rain). Myland used this terminology and applied it to the Pentecost of Acts (early rain) and the one he claimed was again happening at Azusa Street and elsewhere (the latter rain). The key idea of these early Pentecostals was that the gift of tongues was being restored to the church and was going to issue forth into great power to evangelize the world. But the Pentecostal movement was fraught with aberrations that soon arose—such as the Oneness doctrine that denied the Trinity. The thinking of early “Latter Rain” Pentecostals was that God was restoring the apostolic power of the early church.
Those who wanted to maintain traditional evangelical theology yet include the idea of the gift of tongues as the sign of the baptism of the Holy Spirit joined together into groups such as the Assemblies of God. The Assemblies rejected the latter rain ideas and held to traditional premillennial eschatology that many evangelicals believed.
In the 1930s, a man by the name of William Branham began to preach and exhibit supernatural manifestations. George Hawtin and P. G. Hunt heard Branham speak in Vancouver and brought his ideas to North Battleford, Saskatchewan where the “Latter Rain” revival that became the New Order of the Later Rain (NOLR) actually began. A key book that was circulated at that time was Atomic Power with God Through Prayer and Fasting by Franklin Hall. A key idea that still persists is that God is continually desiring to do great and powerful miracles through the church but is unable to do so because the church has not become holy enough, desired it badly enough, has failed in numerous other ways, or lacks the faith that is necessary to precipitate these miracles. The Latter Rain has always been predicated on elitist ideas such as those of Jane Leade previously cited. They consider ordinary churches to be miserable failures that God cannot use.
In 1951, George Warnock wrote a book that became one of the most important statements of the ideas of the NOLR, The Feast of Tabernacles. The book is based on an allegorical interpretation of the feasts of Israel that has the Feast of Tabernacles standing for a glorious end-times church that would arise before Christ can return. The entire book can be read online, as it is posted by current advocates of Latter Rain theology. Warnock states a key premise that underlies the theology of the Latter Rain as well as that of the New Apostolic Reformation: “How thankful we are, therefore, that God is revealing the pattern of perfection. The Ascension gifts, the ministries in the Body of Christ—these are the means of perfecting the saints,—and as we have read, they are to remain in the Church till we all come unto unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man!” The “Ascension gifts” is a reference to the so-called “five fold ministry” of Ephesians 4:11. The idea is that the church will be perfected by the renewal of the ministries of apostles and prophets before Christ returns.
Warnock, like Myland, allegorized the rains in Israel to make them create a scheme of church history:

Joel’s prophecy, therefore, speaks of Pentecost–but it goes on to embrace the fullness of Pentecost, even the Feast of Tabernacles. God did give the former rain moderately–in the Pentecostal Age extending from the early Church until now. But here is something very unusual. Right here in the “first month” of the Agricultural Year . . . God has promised to do something most unusual; for He would give, not only the former rain which belongs to that month, but He would give the former rain and the latter rain combined!”

This he interpreted to mean that the Latter Rain would be characterized by far greater power and glory than what was seen in the Book of Acts. Warnock thereby set the stage for the grandiose claims that are made by the apostles and prophets of our day. It is not inaccurate to say that there is no claim so grandiose that the latter day apostles will not make it. We shall demonstrate that when we examine the writings of one of their top leaders.
Warnock also claimed, like Jane Leade, that Jesus would remain in heaven until after the church achieved elite status never before seen in church history, including that of the Biblical days:

O the immensity of these words! And what is more, Christ is going to remain right where He is at God’s right hand until there shall arise a group of overcomers who shall conquer over all God’s enemies. . . . And yet the majority of Christians are looking for a rapture any moment, when Christ is supposed to catch away a miserable, defeated, disease-ridden Church.

Notice that ordinary Christians, in this elitist thinking, are “miserable, defeated, and disease ridden.” Supposedly we are not worthy of Christ returning for and catching us up to meet Him in the air. Echoes of Leade’s Philadelphian Society are evident here. Rather than looking for Christ’s return as the “blessed hope” of the church, elitists from Leade to Warnock, and as we shall see to the New Apostolic Reformation, are looking for the church to become the new “incarnation” of Christ, with Christ still “held in the heavens.” The hope of the church has thereby ironically become the church itself.
One of the most heretical teachings associated with the NOLR was called “the manifested sons of God” that claimed that certain elite Christians would obtain the promise of immortality (as promised in Romans 8:19) now rather than at the parousia (second coming of Christ). Warnock taught that all enemies, in which he included death, the “last enemy,” had to be conquered by the church before Christ could return: “God says Christ is going to stay right where He is until all His enemies are under His feet. And His enemies include the “last enemy,” which is Death. There must arise a group of overcomers who shall conquer and become absolutely victorious over all the opposing forces of the world, the flesh, and the Devil–before this dispensation draws to a close.” The “overcomers” is another term used by the Latter Rain to describe elitist Christians who are to be distinguished from the rest of us. This is in spite of the fact that the following verse applies to all Christians: “For whatever is born of God overcomes the world; and this is the victory that has overcome the world– our faith” (1John 5:4).
One of the ironies of the Latter Rain and New Apostolic Reformation movements (the latter is merely the current version of the former as I will demonstrate) is that they hold to a “restoration” scenario in which God is supposedly progressively restoring truths lost during church history and now are being restored starting with the Reformation. But ironically, NOLR and NAR teachers constantly contradict and reject important Reformation doctrines. They want to claim the Reformation as theirs and reject it at the same time. For example, the Reformation taught the priesthood of every believer, but George Warnock of the NOLR taught an elitist “Melchizedek” priesthood that only applies to some:

The Melchizedek priesthood is a priesthood of life, and of fadeless glory. It is a priesthood of eternal fellowship and communion with Christ, and not like the Aaronic priesthood which experienced the presence of God only on a certain occasion, once in the year. . . . In the fullness of this new priesthood we shall be completely glorified, like unto Christ. But even as Christ began His priesthood on earth by interceding for His brethren–so let us begin even now to possess this glorious heritage in the Spirit, the Kingdom of God within.

This only applies, according to Warnock, to the last day saints who have attained to this status and shall operate during the great tribulation and thus shorten it. Saints of previous generations have not had this status.
William Branham, mentioned earlier, became a key figure of the Latter Rain movement and is still revered by many. It was said that he accurately, in thousands of instances, gave detailed information about people of which he had no natural means of knowing. Interpreting this ability as “words of knowledge” (1Corin. 12), his followers were convinced that it was a sign that he was a great prophet of God. Branham claimed to have a personal angel who taught him and gave him revelations. He claimed that this angel told him that he was the Elijah who would come before the return of Christ. He also claimed to be the messenger of the Laodicean church. He is buried under a pyramid that makes that claim. Branham rejected the doctrine of the Trinity. Branham demonstrated one thing conclusively: that restoration movements like the Latter Rain so lust for prophets who can do signs and wonders that they will accept nearly any heresy or outrageous claim as long as it is accompanied by signs and miracles.

From the Latter Rain to NAR

Ern Baxter was a personal assistant to William Branham for several years. When the Charismatic Renewal came on the scene not long after the death of Branham, Baxter became a key leader in that movement. He eventually joined with Bob Mumford, Charles Simpson, Derek Prince, and Don Basham to become the “Fort Lauderdale Five” who published New Wine magazine. They became famous for the controversial Shepherding movement. Taking the ideas that God was currently speaking to people through extra biblical revelations, and that certain persons were more advanced than others at “hearing from God,” they began an hierarchical movement in which shepherds would “hear from God” directions for those under them and on down the pyramid.
I was involved in that movement myself in the late 1970s. The key idea was that authority came from “hearing from God.” By definition, the leader of the group I was involved with (a man by the name of Jack Winter) “heard from God.” He came armed with a cache of miracle guidance stories that he repeated to convince people that when it came to hearing from God, he was unsurpassed. Under him were shepherds who heard from God for those under them. Everything we did was under the scrutiny of over shepherds. This included every decision from whom to marry even to mundane decisions like taking trips. Although our heroes on the national level were Baxter, Mumford, and company, we needed to go no higher than Jack Winter for our final divine approval. If there were any serious complaints about this arrangement, Winter would come into town and preach a sermon on “Korah’s Rebellion” with the application that Winter was “Moses” and anyone who disagreed with him was Korah. I personally heard that sermon more than once.
The shepherding movement in general, and our local version in particular, came apart at the seams by the early 1980s. The shepherding movement, like the Latter Rain movement before it, had been discredited. But those who believed the basic paradigm of a restored, apostolic church with more power than the church in Acts never gave up their beliefs. In their minds, it was only a matter of time before the elite end-time church would arise and defeat all of God’s enemies. They dismissed the failures of previous movements on the grounds that certain leaders got off base; but they themselves had kept the dream alive.

Latter Rain Beliefs Enter the NAR

Bill Hamon was born in 1934, and according to his book, Apostles, Prophets, and the Coming Moves of God, he entered the ministry as a teenager: “At the age of eighteen, I was birthed in the restoration teaching that there are still present-day apostles and prophets in the Church. I was ordained and started pastoring when I was 19” That means that he was in the restoration movement and began his ministry right after Warnock published The Feast of Tabernacles. His claims, as we will show, are almost identical to Warnock’s. He too allegorized Haggai 2:9 to prove that the church at the end of the age will be more glorious than that of Acts.
Hamon became involved with C. Peter Wagner’s New Apostolic Reformation at its very inception:

The National Symposium on the Post-Denominational Church convened by Dr. C. Peter Wagner at Fuller Seminary, May 21-23, 1996, was a historical occasion in God’s annals of Church history. It was prophetically orchestrated by the Holy Spirit to fulfill God’s progressive purpose of bringing His Church to its ultimate destiny. . . . The consensus of the panelists was that there are still apostles and prophets in the Church, and that there is an emerging Apostolic Movement that will revolutionize the 21st-century Church. The last-generation Church will have an Apostolic Reformation that will be as great as the first-generation Apostolic Movement.

With Wagner’s endorsement, Hamon brought the teachings of the Latter Rain movement into the NAR. Wagner “highly recommends” Hamon’s book on Apostles and Prophets and wrote the foreword to it. But Hamon’s book reiterates nearly every claim of the discredited Latter Rain movement. For example, one of the more extreme teachings of the NOLR was the “manifested sons” teaching; but Hamon teaches the same thing citing a version of the Bible that translates it “revealing of the sons”:

The whole creation is waiting for the last generation Church. The earth and all of creation are waiting for the manifestation of God’s last-day apostles and prophets and fully restored Church. “For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing of the sons of God” (Rom. 8:19 NKJV). When the Church is fully restored, then the saints will receive their final redemption, the immortalization of the mortal bodies.

Hamon claims that this has to happen before the return of Christ so the church can fulfill her role. Here is further evidence that he claims that immortal bodies will be received before the parousia: “The resurrection-translation of the saints that brings about the redemption of their mortal bodies into immortal, indestructible bodies will take place so that God can fulfill His greater purpose for and through His Church.” This purpose Hamon has in mind will be shown shortly, and it does not have to do with being caught up to meet the Lord in the air.

Latter Rain Heresy is Renamed and Reintroduced

The differences between the Latter Rain Movement and the New Apostolic Reformation mostly have to do with terminology, not doctrine. In the 1980s, a teaching circulated amongst those who attend conferences put on by those in the prophetic movement called “a new breed of man.” The basic idea is that ordinary Christians throughout church history had been colossal failures and that God was going to fall upon certain persons by His Holy Spirit and “impregnate” them so that they could “give birth” to something entirely new. The “new breed of man” would be exalted saints with holiness and power never known before. I remember debating people at the time who were following this teaching.
Earl Paulk was a noteworthy leader in the 1980s who was involved in these teachings. Though later discredited through a series of sex scandals that are even now back in the news, Paulk articulated the elitist ideas of the movement:

“Firstfruits” means many others like Him [Jesus] will follow. Jesus was the firstfruit of God’s incarnation, a man living out God’s perfect will. Now He says, “I want to inject life by putting the seed of the Holy Spirit in the Church. My people will bring forth life as they become the ‘incarnate Word’ on planet Earth.” I am sure this definition bothers some theologians, but the Church is “the ongoing expression” of God.

So the impregnated church will become “incarnate” like Christ. This idea is exactly the one taught by Jane Leade back in 1679 as cited earlier and then also articulated by Latter Rain teachers. Paulk reiterates the idea: “The great move of God to place the Holy Spirit within us makes us become the incarnation of God.”
Bill Hamon includes the “new breed” idea in his teachings: “The new breed of Joshua Generation apostles will move in the miraculous and definitely manifest the signs of the apostle.” The “Joshua Generation” is another allegory popular in this movement. The crossing of the Jordan into the promised land by Israel is allegorized to mean the triumph of the church over all enemies so as to take the land, “every place your sole treads” they claim. The “new breed” means that they are not of the same order of humans as other Christians who have ever existed. Hamon further states: “Let it suffice to say here that the new breed of apostles will be motivated by the Spirit of Wisdom.” The spirit of wisdom in Isaiah 11:2 is that which is distinctive of Christ. The NAR claims that Christ is coming IN the church not FOR the church. Hamon claims that he himself is one of God’s “new breed” of last-days apostles.
Earlier, William Branham had claimed to be the Elijah who would come (Matthew 17:11). But Branham died and all things were not restored. Now Hamon has modified this claim to cover what they call an “Elijah Company”: But there is still a future fulfillment when Elijah will come to prepare the way for Christ’s Second Coming. This time it would not be just one prophet but a great company of prophets that would not only prepare the way and make ready a people, but they would RESTORE ALL THINGS.” This “restoration” must happen, through the church, before Christ can return: “Jesus could not leave earth until He had fulfilled all Messianic prophecies and He cannot come back to earth until the Church fulfills all restoration scriptures.”
While rejecting the pre-tribulation rapture, teachers like Hamon do not believe their glorified, end-times church will be martyred by Antichrist but rather defeat the entire Babylonian system of the tribulation themselves! Here is his claim:

God’s holy Church apostles and prophets have a co-laboring ministry of bringing about the mighty fall of Babylon the Great. Their authority will be beyond anything we have seen in our day. . . Like Moses and Elijah, God’s apostles and prophets will prevail over all their enemies unto the end.

The Bible says that God will destroy Babylon; it does not say the church will (see Revelation 18).

The Joel’s Army Heresy Reintroduced

One of the discredited teachings of the NOLR was called “Joel’s Army.” The claim was that Joel 2:1-11 predicts that the end time church will be “Joel’s Army” that will execute God’s judgments on the earth. This is another false Latter Rain teaching that Bill Hamon still propagates. Here is his claim:

The saints are being trained now in the military bases of international training centers and their local church armories. The goal is to have them taught, equipped and field trained to be the officers that lead God’s army of prophetic evangelist saints during the coming Saints Movement. They will minister under the covering and leadership of fivefold apostolic and prophetic generals who trained them. These saints will function like God’s army prophetically described by Prophet Joel (Joel 2:1-11).

There is nothing in Joel 2:1-11 that predicts that this army is made up of elite, end times Christians. Hamon’s allegorical method allows him to read most anything into the Scripture. He further discusses the church as an end time army:

God’s great end-time army is being prepared to execute God’s written Judgments with Christ’s victory and divine judgment decrees that have already been established in heaven. The time is set when they will be administered and executed on earth through God’s saintly army. All that is destined and needed will be activated during God’s restorational Army of the Lord Movement.

All of this ignores the obvious fact that the judgments poured out during the Great Tribulation as described in Revelation are direct outpourings of God’s wrath on the earth, not through the actions of the church. The “movements” that Hamon describes are not found in the Bible; he is prophesying them by his own authority with no evidence that we should believe what he is saying.

The “Kingdom Now” Heresy Reintroduced

Another “movement” that Hamon predicts he calls “The Kingdom Establishing Movement.” Here he makes even more grandiose claims:

The movement will not cease until all knees bow and every tongue confesses that Jesus is the true Lord God over all the earth. That does not imply that everyone who makes that confession or acknowledgement is saved. However, there will be such worldwide demonstration of God’s power over the elements, people raised from the dead, miraculous control of natural catastrophes, miraculous prophetic words and endless supernatural manifestations, signs and wonders, until everyone will have to acknowledge that there is no god like Jesus Christ, the God of gods and Lord of lords.

According to NOLR and NAR teachers, the kingdom of God is established by the church during history and before the parousia. Hamon writes, “Now let us begin to pray earnestly that the full dominion of His literal kingdom be established in all reality over all nations and people of the earth. . . They will pray and declare that it is time for God’s kingdom to be established over all the earth by the divine delegated authority and ministry of Christ’s Church.

The Bible Prophesies End Times Delusion

Having seen the consistent claims spanning several centuries right up to the present that elite Christians shall arise and overcome death before the rapture, do greater miracles than those of the Biblical accounts, defeat all of God’s enemies while Christ remains “held in the heavens,” and become the virgin born, new breed of man, manifested sons, the very incarnation of God on earth, etc., let us consider what the Bible predicts about the end time. The Bible teaches none of these heretical doctrines uniformly based on allegorized Scripture, but rather teaches that massive deception through false signs and wonders would characterize the end of the age.
Jesus said: “Many false prophets will arise and will mislead many. . . . For false Christs and false prophets will arise and will show great signs and wonders, so as to mislead, if possible, even the elect” (Matthew 24:11, 24). He did not tell us to look for a “new breed” of “anointed ones” (christs) but warned us to avoid their deceptions. Paul predicted perilous times of sin and evil at the end of the age where men will oppose the truth by doing false signs and wonders like Pharaoh’s magicians opposed Moses (2Timothy 3:1-8). Peter predicted that false teachers would arise and seek to seduce the church by exploiting us with “false words” (2Peter 2:1-3). John warned us that in the last hour there are false “anointed ones” (antichrists). Paul tells us where this is all headed: “Let no one in any way deceive you, for it [the day of the Lord] will not come unless the apostasy comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction,” (2Thessalonians 2:3).
Furthermore, the passages in Revelation that the elitist, NAR and NOLR apostles appropriate for themselves, do not teach the church triumphs over the world through her own efforts while Jesus is “held in the heavens.” Their interpretations are fanciful and not based on any sound hermeneutic. They allegorize the Bible because there is no way to find their ideas in the Bible if taken literally. We need to decide whether to believe what Jesus, Paul, John and Peter said in the inerrant Scripture or the prophecies of people who claim to be new apostles and prophets while simultaneously contradicting the teachings of the true apostles and prophets.

Church history has shown that whenever new claimants to the office of apostle have arisen, so have false teachings. The teachings of many such persons today, as we have seen, are shocking in the extremity of their error. Yet C. Peter Wagner claims that churches that he terms “apostolic” in this new sense are part of the fastest growing segment of the church in the world today. Perhaps he is right; but if he is, this is proof of massive end time apostasy and not the revival he claims it to be.
The only binding authority in the church is that of Scripture. God does not bind us to mixture, error, or the musings of men. The false apostles and prophets of the NOLR and NAR have no power over the true, blood-bought church of God. Prophets that are less than inerrant have nothing to sell but fear: “When a prophet speaks in the name of the Lord, if the thing does not come about or come true, that is the thing which the Lord has not spoken. The prophet has spoken it presumptuously; you shall not be afraid of him” (Deuteronomy 18:22). The grandiose claims that span from Leade, to Warnock, to Branham, to Paulk, and to Hamon have never come to pass, and they never will. There will be no virgin born, many-membered man-child, Elijah company, new breed of man, new incarnation of the Christ on earth or any other such blasphemy. The role these terms describe is that of antichrist. The true Christ will return bodily and catch his church up to meet Him in the air (1Thessalonians 4:17).

End Notes

Bill Hamon, Apostles Prophets and the Coming Moves of God (Destiny Imagine: Shippensburg, PA, 1997) 10.
Roberts, Alexander ; Donaldson, James ; Coxe, A. Cleveland: The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol.I : Translations of the Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D. 325. Oak Harbor : Logos Research Systems, 1997, S. 16; First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians chapter 42.
Ibid, Clement chapter 44.
See CIC issue 66 that addresses the pertinent passages: http://cicministry.org/commentary/issue66.htm
C. Peter Wagner, Apostles and Prophets – The Foundation of the Church (Regal: Ventura, 2000) 19, 20.
CIC Issue 102.

Cruel Options for Afrocentrist Critics of Christianity

By Rev. Clinton Chisholm

Those Afrocentrists who assert (often without supporting evidence) that the ancient Hebrews derived their major doctrines from Egypt arising from the Hebrews’ collective presence in Egypt for over 400 years cannot easily go on to raise questions on the reality of the biblical exodus. If an Afrocentrist critic of the Judaeo-Christian faith concedes the presence of Hebrews in Egypt for any extended period then the question arises, did they ever leave en masse? If not what happened to them as a people group in Egypt and where is the evidence for the answer to this critical query? Let it be clear, the critics cannot have it both ways, it is either presence in Egypt and thus access to direct Egyptian influence on the socio-religious traditions of the Hebrews with openness to the reality of an exodus from Egypt or serious doubts about the biblical exodus from Egypt along with doubts about a collective Hebrew presence in Egypt and loss of the argument for access to direct Egyptian influence on the socio-religious traditions of the Hebrews. But it cannot be both.

Other permutations and combinations may seem possible but they all fail to add to the two-fold option I have mentioned. For instance, as was attempted at the Nile Valley forum by Bro. Neter, once you argue that the Hebrews got their main ideas from living in Egypt then mention of the Hebrews as possibly being the Habiru/Apiru/Hapiru or the Hyksos is to introduce a red herring. Indeed it is a sign of intellectual desperation when an individual in the same presentation mentions both the Habiru and the Hyksos as options to confirm the presence of the Hebrews in Egypt—a point which has never been in doubt from the Judaeo-Christian side!! The time frame suggested from the documents of the Ancient Near East that mention the Habiru and the Hyksos put the dastardly activities of the Habiru in Canaan during the reign of Akhenaten’s father, Amenophis III (1390-1352 BC) and even beyond Akhenaten’s reign (1352-1336 BC). Britannica online Encyclopaedia says the Hyksos (Egyptian for ‘foreign rulers’) “…settled in northern Egypt during the 18th century BC. In about 1630 they seized power, and Hyksos kings ruled Egypt as the 15th dynasty (c. 1630–1521 BC)”.

Neither the odious picture of the Habiru’s tactics in Canaan nor the portrait of the Hyksos as foreign rulers in Egypt fits what the Bible says about the early Hebrews in Canaan and Egypt.

Critics who demand Egyptological evidence for the biblical exodus must ponder the words of Kenneth Kitchen, Ancient Near Eastern specialist, Archaeologist and Egyptologist, “The Delta [where the Hebrews operated] is an alluvial fan of mud deposited through many millennia by the annual flooding of the Nile; it has no source of stone within it…So those who squawk intermittently ‘No trace of the Hebrews has ever been found’ (so, of course, no exodus!) are wasting their breath. The mud hovels of brickfield slaves and humble cultivators have long since gone back to their mud origins, never to be seen again. Even stone structures (such as temples) hardly survive, in striking contrast to sites in the cliff-enclosed valley of Upper Egypt in the south.” (On the Reliability of the Old Testament, 2003, p.246)

Pointing to the paucity of even written records from Delta sites Kitchen provides another sobering comment on the same page “And as pharaohs never monumentalize defeats on temple walls, no record of the successful exit of a large bunch of foreign slaves (with loss of a full chariot squadron) would ever have been memorialized by any king, in temples in the Delta or anywhere else.”

Afrocentrism: Freedom from Mental Slavery or Bondage to a Faulty Worldview?

By Roger Marshall*

Between 3.5 million to 250,000 years ago, deep in the humid jungles of south to central Africa, black people were the first humans to evolve from ape-like creatures classified by today’s paleoanthropologists as the Australopithecines (i.e.” Southern apes”) such as Australopithecus afarensis (a.k.a. “Lucy”), Australopithecus robustus, Australopithecus africanus etc.

After close and constant observations of his awe-inspiring and often fear-inducing natural surroundings, the black man, being the first human type in existence, was the first to conceptualise the ideas and notions of higher supernatural powers, spirits, gods and godesses, good and evil forces which over time eventually evolved into the idea and notion of one God in battle with the devil

Being the first man, the black man didn’t only invent religion but also art and science long before the white man came on the scene. In fact, the white man only appeared on the earth thousands of years after black people had already dominated the then known world. Further more, white people really evolved from black people who ventured off the African continent and settled in the cold northern regions of what is now known as Europe. After many years of mutations (genetic mistakes) their black skins paled into white skins, tightly coiled hair became frayed and straightened, and their warm humane temperaments soon degraded into cold, blood-thirsty savagery; a direct result of the harsh icy conditions of the northern regions.

Back in Africa, the great African achievements of science, art and religion continued to be developed by those Africans who remained on the mother continent. These achievements reached their apex in Egyptian culture and religion and served as the greatest contributors to world civilization and world religions including Christianity.

Christianity is therefore considered to be nothing more than a Jewish-European mythological religion based on earlier African Egyptian concepts.

For centuries the truth of Africa’s overwhelming contribution to world civilization and the Christian religion has been suppressed by Europeans, who not only stole their scientific, political, moral and religious ideas from Egypt, but also sought and still presently seek to forever impose their Eurocentric ideology upon black people. This was accomplished primarily through the European colonization of many African countries and the holocaust of the transatlantic slave trade.

Through their many propaganda agencies, including the church, the conquering European masters were able to systematically reduce black people psychologically from the great accomplishers they were, to mere chattel slaves and underdogs. But at last, today after many years of black struggle and resistance, the real truth about Africa and its people is now coming out.

Today the clarion call to all blacks everywhere is to emancipate ourselves from mental slavery and all that it entails, including mental slavery to the white man’s “God” and his Christian religion.

So goes the Afrocentric worldview of a growing number of intellectuals, influential leaders and their adherents throughout the African Diaspora. A few quotes from these intellectuals will illustrate what I mean.

In a 1996 interview with the Barbados Sunday Sun historian professor Hillary Beckles (now Principal) of the University of the West Indies said: “Christianity, though a religion of the West, was not a Western religion. It emerged out of ancient Judaism, which has its origins in African religions.” 1

Six years earlier, in a similar article which also appeared in the Barbados Sunday Sun, Professor Beckles said: “the characteristics attributed to Jesus were already clearly defined in the Egyptian God Osiris: son of God; gave his life for man; rose from the dead … all these were clearly defined in ‘The Book of The Dead’.” He added “One God, monotheism, was not a white, European or Jewish concept but has its origins in Africa. Before 3,000 years BC the concept of one God was already established in African religions” 2

Bishop Antarrah Gilkes of the Gnostic Catholic Church said: “The idea of the resurrection is a [pre]-Christian African-Egyptian doctrine… and originally concerned the risen glorified spiritual body of Heru or Horus from Amenta at the time of the Spring Equinox” 3

Beatrice Lumpkin, associate professor of mathematics at Malcolm X College in Chicago said: “Western literature architecture, religion and ethics were also greatly influenced by those of Egypt. In religion, the story of Moses and a baby in the bulrushes is a close analogue of the earlier Egyptian Horus story (Isis hid Horus in a basket among the reeds of the Niles). The Christian trinity was a later import from Egypt and is not found in the Old Testament.” 4

The works of the 19th century British Egyptologist, Gerald Massey, are foundational too much of today’s Afrocentric claims about the origins of the Judaeo-Christian faith. Massey was both an evolutionist and a spiritualist who participated in many séances. He said: “the starting point of the human family has now to be sought for in Africa, the birth place o the black race, the land of the oldest known human types and of those which preceded and most nearly approached the human … Aethiopia and Egypt produced the earliest civilization in the world and it was indigenous.” 5

Massey was convinced that the Bible’s five books of Moses represented Egyptian astronomical allegorises, which has been literalised, historicized, and humanized. In other words the Bible does not represent true history. As he stated: “The Hebrew books of the Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Joshua, and Judges are invaluable as a virgin mine of mythology; they are of the utmost importance as an aid in recovering the primeval types of Egyptian thought … For the Hebrews, who collected and preserved so much, have explained nothing … There is evidence enough to prove the types are Egyptian and the people who brought them out of Egypt must have been more or less Egyptian in race, and of a religion that was Egyptian of the earliest and oldest kind. Undoubtedly there is some very slight historic nucleus in the Hebrew narrative, but it has been so mixed with myth that it is far easier to recover the celestial allegory with the aid of its correlatives than it is to restore the human history” 6

Afrocentrist, Charles S. Finch, M.D., Assistant Professor of community Medicine and Family Practice at Morehouse School of Medicine, in commenting on Massey’s works said: “Massey wrote that his earlier books ‘were met in England with the truly orthodox conspiracy of silence’. Considering that his writings completely overturned the accepted theories on the birth of civilization as well as the very foundations of orthodox Christianity, it isn’t any wonder.

“He asserted that the Gospels, like certain Old Testament accounts already alluded to, were just the humanized and historicized astronomical mythology of Egypt, instituted by the early Christian canonizers and confirmed at the council of Nicea… As an example of Christianity’s astronomical antecedents, the birthday of Christ, originally celebrated in early January, was purposefully moved back to December 25 to coincide with the birthday of the sun-god Horus (and all the sun gods of antiquity) at which time the constellation Virgo was on the eastern horizon; the sun as son, then…, was truly born of the virgin. Gospel episodes appear to have actually been lifted from the Egyptian originals and given a Palestinian dressing… Massey listed more than 200 direct parallels between the Jesus legend and the Osiris-Horus cycle. The early Jesus is equivalent to Horus; Jesus the Christ corresponds to Osiris, the resurrected god” 7

In light of all these Afrocentric claims to the origins of mankind, religion and civilization, Dr. Neville Duncan, Political scientist at the University of the West Indies said: “We in the Caribbean do not know or history. We don’t know who our heroes are … The history of slavery is one of shame and triumph; the triumph of breaking out of slavery. But we need to go further back, to when Africa was great” 8

While there is a legitimate side to Black Studies in as much as it seeks to educate people about the injustices done to black people, as well as correct the many distortions about Africans and their contribution to world civilization, the blatant attacks upon biblical truth as advocated by several Afrocentrists must not be allowed to go unchallenged.

In the Beginning

To put Black Studies in proper perspective we need to do more than what Dr. Neville Duncan suggested (i.e. to go back in time to “when Africa was great.”); we need to go back to the very dawn of human history, long before there was even a continent know as Africa!

As noted in the opening statements of this article, many Afrocentrists hold to the neo-Darwinian worldview that humans descended (through long evolutionary processes) from ape-like creatures, hence they scoff at the Biblical account of origins recorded in Genesis deeming it to be unscientific and nothing more than mythology. Of course, the evolutionary worldview of the origin of mankind and religion is the position of atheistic naturalism. In the words of the late professor Sir Julian Huxley: “In the evolutionary pattern of thought there is no longer need or room for the supernatural. The earth was not created, it evolved. So did all the animals and plants that inhabit it, including our human selves, mind and soul as well as brain and body. So did religion.” 9

Interestingly enough, while Afrocentrists are embracing Darwinism, it is Darwinism which gave a perfect rationale for white on black racism and white superiority claims (claims advocated long before Darwin was born). This fact is bourn out even in the title of Darwin’s seminal work The Origin of Species which was fully entitled: The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (emphasis mine). In Darwin’s subsequent book, The Decent of Man, he espoused his belief that different races of people evolved at different levels and that some were closer to ape-like creatures than others. In fact Darwin believed that the Australian Aborigines (identified by Afrocentrists as “Africoid”) were the most primitive and the most closely related to our supposed ape-like ancestors.

It was Darwinism, which gave Hitler the “scientific” rationale to carry out his atrocities against the Jews and other “lower races.” As Robert Clark observed, Adolf Hitler “…was captivated by evolutionary teaching – probably since the time he was a boy. Evolutionary ideas – quite undisguised – lie at the basis of all that is worst in Mein Kampf – and in his public speeches…Hitler reasoned…that a higher race would always conquer a lower.”10 In his own words at the 1933 Nuremberg party rally, Hitler said that a “higher race subjects to itself a lower race…a right which we see in nature and which can be regarded as the sole conceivable right” 11

Thus Darwinism – the hub of Afrocentric philosophy, which proudly proclaims that the Black man was the first man to evolve from the apes in Africa – is in itself an inherently racist philosophy favouring any subsequent “race” (in this case the “white” race) that would later subjugate the preceding dominant race (the “black” race) all in the name of survival of the fittest. Drawn to its logical conclusion, Darwinian evolutionary philosophy was epitomised by the transatlantic slave trade, when the white man subjugated the black man; the effects of which are still being felt today in many varied ways. So why the protests by Afrocentrists? After all, what has transpired over the past 500 years is simply evolution in action.

The true origin of man

Thankfully, Darwinism is not true, as the scientific (observable) evidence shows. For example, if humans really evolved from ape-like creatures such as the australopithecines, then we should not expect to find very modern-looking human fossils showing up in the times of the australopithecines. But this is exactly what we do find, which is most embarrassing to the whole idea of human evolution. One example is a fossil found at Kanopoi, South West of Lake Rudolf in northern Kenya. Known as KP271, it is the lower end of a left upper arm bone (distal end of the humerus). It was found in 1965 by Bryan Patterson of Harvard University and is believed to be 4.5 million years old (according to evolutionary time scales, which are not accepted by young earth creationists or this author) making it the oldest hominid fossil ever found.

William Howells, also of Havard, and Patterson examined KP271 via computer discriminate analysis. They compared it with the distal ends of the humeri of a modern human, a chimpanzee, and a similar fossil: Australopithecus rebustus. They published the results of their study in Science Magazine, April 7, 1967. They said: “In these diagnostic measurements, Kanapoi Hominoid 1 is strikingly close to the means of the human”. After several more years of testing and examination, Henry McHenry of the University of California wrote: “The results show that the Kanopoi specimen, which is 4 to 4.5 million years old, is indistinguishable from modern Homo Sapiens…”12

In commenting on this fossil find, anthropologist and creationist Professor Marvin Lubenow said: “…the oldest human fossil ever found – Skimpy as it is – reveals that man was virtually the same 4.5 million years ago (on the evolutionary time scale) as he is today and suggests that humans appeared on the scene suddenly and without evolutionary ancestors”13

Then there are the Laetoli footprint trails discovered in northern Tanzania dated again, according to the evolutionary time scale, at 3.6 million years old but yet as Russell H. Tuttle of the University of Chicago has observed these footprint trails “In discernible features … are indistinguishable from those of habitually barefoot Homo sapiens”14

Again, as Professor Marvin Lubenow says: “The fact that humans appeared in the fossil record before the australopithecines and lived as contemporaries with the australopithecines throughout all of australopithecine history reveals that the australopithecines had nothing to do with human origins”15

To the unbiased mind such evidence in the fossil record strongly supports the Biblical account of human origins as recorded in Genesis. That account indicates that humans did indeed appear on the scene suddenly without any evolutionary ancestors. In short, man was created by God; he didn’t evolve from lower animals.

As for the Afrocentrists’ claim that Africa is the “mother land” on which the first humans appeared (after evolving from apes of course, in their view) many creationist scientists (as opposed to evolutionists) point out that the early earth, on which Adam and Eve lived, was one giant landmass known to us today as Pangaea. In fact, the concept of Pangaea, which is widely accepted by evolutionary geologists (howbeit on an evolutionary time scale which places its existence and subsequent break up long before man appeared on the scene) was originally conceived and championed by the French creationist geographer Antonio Snider in 1859. The statements in Genesis 1:9-10 about the gathering together of the seas in one place (which seems to imply that there was one landmass) influenced his thinking. He believed Pangaea was broken up by Noah’s flood.16 Since all the continents were joined together as one landmass when Adam walked the earth, technically speaking, it means that all the continents have a collective claim to the first man, not just Africa alone. To put it bluntly, Adam was not an African, a European or an Asian, rather he was a citizen of the whole earth, a Pangaean, if you will.

The origin of religion

As pointed out earlier, many Afrocentrists, due to their foundational belief in the biological evolution of man in the jungles of Africa, also subscribe to the view that the concept of God and spirituality evolved and developed out of earlier African animistic and polytheistic concepts, concepts that they claim over time eventually gave rise to monotheism of which Judaism, Christianity and Islam are, relatively speaking, the latest versions.

However, just like the notion of human evolution, that view of the origin of religion is also false. In attestation to this fact, Dr. Stephen M. Langdon, professor of Assyriology at Oxford University, noted: “Monotheism in the Old Testament, [was] not the result of a direct evolution from polytheism. It was a false concept of the history of religion to suppose that polytheism was necessarily connected with low types of culture. In fact polytheism grew out of monotheism and was only a theological interpretation of primitive monotheism… the earliest religious concepts of man… pointed unmistakably to an original monotheism… the totemistic origin of Hebrew and other Semitic religions is now entirely discredited” 17

Another researcher, Wilhelm Schmidt, a Jesuit professor at the University of Vienna, spent over forty years (1912-1955) documenting and compiling evidence for what he called ‘primitive monotheism’. In 1931, Schmidt published his findings as ‘The Origin and Growth of Religion’, a book that revolutionized the study of religious anthropology. His findings revealed that ancient man’s religion was originally monotheistic but eventually degenerated into magic, animism, ancestor worship, spiritism, polytheism, pantheism etc. This of course is the Biblical position (See Rom. 1: 18-25) and is once again supported by the evidence. In fact, by 1958 Schmidt had published over 4,000 pages of evidence in 12 large volumes 18

Additionally, contrary to Beatrice Lumpkin’s claim (mentioned earlier) that “The Christian trinity was a later import from Egypt and is not found in the Old Testament”, the evidence shows otherwise. From a Biblical perspective the doctrine of the Trinity actually predates Egyptian civilisation and reaches way back to the very dawn of human existence, in the Garden of Eden, when God (Elohim) said: “Let us make man in our image and after our likeness…” (Gen.1: 26). If Adam (the first man) understood God to be more than one person in nature, then one would expect to find glimpses or traces of this understanding among several diverse cultures of people (both Jew and Gentile) who are all Adam’s descendants, this is exactly what we do find in both biblical and extra-biblical material.

For example, the most famous Jewish prayer, the Shema, says: “Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One” (Deut. 6: 4). The Hebrew word for “One” in this verse is echad. Rev. Dr. Clinton Chisholm, in commenting on the use of this word in scripture says: “Echad…means one in a complex or compound sense, this word suggests the unity that results from combining plural entities. Interestingly, the Old Testament writers never use yachid [a word which means one in a solitary, digital sense] to describe God! That fact would, on the surface, suggest that they did not believe in God as a solitary, digital…person. What we do find is that echad is used to describe God, which would be expected if the writers believed in a multi-personal God…Indeed it is not simply the multi-personality of God that is suggested in the Old Testament but there are passages that hint at the trinity (see Is. 48: 16; 61: 1; 63: 9 – 10).” 19

Extra-biblical evidence of the knowledge of the triune or multi-personal nature of God, among several of Adam’s descendants who apostatised into paganism, also abounds. For example, as antiquarian the late Alexander Hislop observed: “The ancient Babylonians…recognised in words the unity of the Godhead; and, while worshipping innumerable minor deities, as possessed of certain influence on human affairs, they distinctly acknowledged that there was ONE infinite and almighty Creator, supreme over all. Most other nations did the same” 20

Hislop further noted: “In the unity of that one Only God of the Babylonians, there were three persons, and to symbolise that doctrine of the Trinity, they employed, as the discoveries of Layard [the famed 19th century archaeologist] prove, the equilateral triangle…the Egyptians also used the triangle as a symbol of their ‘triform divinity’.” 21

Layard also noted in his work Nineveh and Babylon that the ancient Assyrians and Persians also worshipped a triune god as their supreme deity, represented with three heads on one body. The ancient pagans of Siberia did the same, so did the Celts. Similarly, in one of the most ancient cave temples at Elephanta, India, there is a triform image of the supreme deity of the Indians represented with three heads on one body under the name “Eko Deva Trimurtti” which when translated means “One God, three forms.” 22

This kind of archaeological evidence corroborates the biblical teaching which says that all men have some knowledge of the true and living God, as the apostle Paul wrote: “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse… Professing to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man—and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things.” (Rom.1: 18-20, 22, 23, NKJ). Rev. Hislop sums it up this way: “While overlaid with idolatry, the recognition of a Trinity was universal in all the ancient nations of the world, proving how deep-rooted in the human race was the primeval doctrine on this subject, which comes out so distinctly in Genesis.” 23

The origin of Christianity

When we turn our attention to the claim that Christianity borrowed its teachings of a virgin born saviour who died for the sins of the world, and rose again from the dead, from earlier mythological African Egyptian sources, we find that the charges don’t stand up to careful scrutiny. In refutation of the said charges, first it must be observed that the doctrine of the virgin birth, death and resurrection of the world saviour, like the doctrine of the Trinity, is also pre-African/Egyptian. This doctrine goes all the way back to the dawn of human history in the Garden of Eden (see Gen. 3: 15) long before the continent now know as Africa and the country known as Egypt even existed.

It is the God given promise in Genesis of a virgin born saviour (“the seed of the woman” as opposed to the seed of the man) who dies and recovers/resurrects (symbolised by the bruised heel of the seed of the woman) which is the true origin and source of the Christian doctrine of the virgin birth, death, burial and resurrection of Christ. Indeed, it is probably, for the most part, the source and origin of any traces of the same doctrine in pagan religions. However, just as the pagans (in light of Romans 1: 18 – 25) perverted their knowledge of the true and living God, similarly they also corrupted their knowledge of the coming saviour. Only by the advent of Jesus Christ was the ancient promise of a world saviour truly fulfilled (Gal. 4: 4-5).

Additionally, there is also historic evidence that suggest that some of the striking similarities between Christianity and other pagan “saviour-god” religions, is the result of the pagans syncretising their beliefs with Christianity. Concerning this fact, Josh McDowell writes: “Attis is supposed to have come back to life four days after his death, one account has Osiris being reanimated two or three days after his death and it is even suggested that Adonis may have been resurrected three days after his death. In the case of all three, there is no evidence earlier than the second century A.D. for the supposed “resurrection” of these mystery gods…” 24

In fact, before the second century A.D. the original Egyptian teaching about Osiris returning from the dead was via his reincarnation (not resurrection) in his son Horus. 25 The doctrines of reincarnation or “transmigration of souls” and resurrection are mutually exclusive and can not be equated as one and the same.

Norman Anderson in his book Christianity and World Religions writes: “…if borrowing there was by one religion from another, it seems clear which way it went. There is no evidence whatever, that I know of, that the mystery religion had any influence in Palestine in the early decades of the first century. And the difference between the mythological experiences of these nebulous figures and the crucifixion “under Pontius Pilate” of one of whom eye witnesses bore testimony to both his death and resurrection is again obvious.” 26

The resurrection of Jesus Christ is historical fact and not fiction as the Afrocentrists claim.

Truth: the true weapon to deal with injustices

Afrocentrism has its roots in Pan Africanism and the Black Consciousness Movement which arose as ideological responses among Blacks to counter the persistent negative portrayals of black people and the many injustices they suffered in society and unfortunately even in church circles.

For example, some churches taught (and unfortunately still do teach) that black skin was the sign of a curse. It was said that it was the mark which God placed on Cain after he killed Abel (Gen. 4: 9-15). However, it should be noted that the mark (whatever it was) was only placed on Cain and not his entire family. Furthermore, Cain’s descendants did not survive the flood.

Some churches also taught that people with black skin are under the curse which Noah supposedly placed on his son Ham (Gen. 9: 22-25). Since several of Ham’s descendants were blacks who settled in Africa, it meant that Africans were also under the curse and were fit only for servitude and slavery. However, it should again be noted that the curse pronounced by Noah was not on Ham at all but rather it was pronounced on his son Canaan. Canaan was the progenitor of the non-negroid inhabitants of Palestine such as the Jebrusites, the Amorites, the Hivites, etc. (Gen. 10: 15-19).

The Mormons teach that all people pre-existed in heaven before they were born on earth. During the war in heaven, when the sons of God fought against Lucifer and his angels, they were some of those pre-existent souls who did not engage in the war one way or the other, but rather tried to be neutral. Those who fought for Christ were born with white skins, a sign of their bravery and loyalty to Christ. Conversely, those who refused to get involve were born with black skins.

This kind of teaching is insulting and demeaning to black people and has gendered much prejudice and racism over the years, including black on white racism that has led to some very extreme claims and statements made by blacks about whites.

For example, the followers of Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam (NOI) claim that all white people are devils while black people are gods/divine. Ratafarians have also claimed that white men are devils and that God, Jesus, the Israelites and God, Jesus, the Israelites and the early Christians were all black.

While it is important for us to dispel the many myths about the origin and status of the black “race”, it is even more important that Afrocentrists be not guilty of correcting white distortions of race and history with black distortions. There is a saying “extremes promote extremes but the point of balance is the true opposite of all extremes”.

A proper understanding of the Biblical view of “race” is key to maintaining any balance in the area of black consciousness.

First, the Bible declares that all men regardless of “race” are created equal (Acts 17: 24-26). Furthermore the Bible speaks of nations or ethnic groups, not of races. There is really only one race – the human race – but many nations/ethnicities.

Secondly, the Bible declares that all men, regardless of nation or ethnicity, are sinners (Rom. 3: 23).

Thirdly, the Bible reveals that there is only one-way of salvation for all peoples, viz, the blood of Jesus shed for the remission or forgiveness of our sins, skin colour has nothing to do with it (see Luke22: 20, Heb. 9: 11-22).

It is also important to have an understanding about what the Bible teaches concerning the origin of the various ethnic groups. While many Afrocentrists claim that Adam and Eve were black, as opposed to being white, the Bible seems to suggest that early man was neither black or white but was probably some where in the middle with a reddish brown complexion, as indicated by the Hebrew word for Adam. As Dr. Spiros Zodhiates points out in the Lexical Aids of the Hebrew Greek Key Study Bible Âdam; this root is translated as ‘ruddy,’ ‘dyed red,’ and ‘red’ in the K.J.V. in its ten occurances. It means reddish brown, turning red, to be erubescent…” In regard to the noun form he said: “Âdâm; this noun usually refers to mankind in the collective sense. It is also a proper noun, the first man whom God created…There is probably some original connection to the ruddiness of men’s complexion; see âdam” 27
If Adam’s skin colour was somewhere in the middle, with built-in genetic ability to adjust or variate to either the lighter or darker sides of the spectrum, based on (but not solely on) environmental demands, that would easily account for the extensive variety in skin colour we see today.

In addressing this issue the website of the creationist organisation, Answers in Genesis, says the following:
“In any group of ‘white’ people today the ability to tan or produce brownness varies. Some just can’t do it and pay the price-sunburn. Others produce Hollywood brown without too much trouble. We are even familiar with the person whose skin is just ‘naturally’ dark. In a group of ‘black’ people, such minor variations also exist, producing shades of blackness.
“The Bible refers to genetic variations, such as the height of man, before the flood. It is therefore very probable that both before and after the flood variations in skin coloration also existed-even in Noah’s family.
“Up to the time of Babel, since there was only one language, all of mankind formed only one culture or ‘marriage group’. Any variations would tend to be minimized since ‘darkish’ could marry a ‘lightish’, and the average color of the population would stay the same. However, the coming of new languages changed all that. The large group was split into many smaller groups. It is unlikely that each group would have contained a representative of all shades of skin color. So if a census had been taken of average skin color of each group, some would have averaged towards the darker end, and some to the lighter end. The same sort of difference would no doubt have occurred for any body characteristic-straight hair, wavy hair, eye shape, etc.
“The world environment had been dramatically changed by the flood. As the groups dispersed, then, they were going to areas which offered them new and different climates and diets. Studies on the relationship between skin color and health in a given environment, suggest the following origin of racial colors. After Babel, those who went to colder climates who had darker skin, would probably suffer Vitamin D deficiencies, such as rickets. The skin produces Vitamin D from sunlight. The person with darker skin is worse off in a cold region since there is less sunlight, and since he is more sunlight resistant, he can produce less Vitamin D. “The colder environment, both through sunlight and the available diet, would tend to favor those with fairer skins. Dark skinned people would be therefore less healthy and tend to have fewer children. Gradually the number of black people in any group that went to a cold region would dwindle. From that point on the remaining population was a ‘white’ race.
“Likewise, those who went to brighter, hotter regions, and had darker skins would survive more easily (i.e. get less skin cancer, etc.) and hence be selected for. In this case, the whiter persons would dwindle from the population and a ‘black’ race would result. It is interesting to note that if a pure white European is married to a pure black Negro, the offspring are an intermediate brown called mulatto. If two mulattos are married, the offspring can be any of 9 colors, from pure white to pure black.
“The simplest conclusion that it may be possible to draw from this observation is that Noah and his family possessed genes for both dark and light. Dark enough to protect them, and light enough to ensure sufficient Vitamin D. In the world before the flood it is unlikely that there would have been extremes of heat or cold, so that a balanced skin color was the most suitable. After Babel the extremes of environment sorted these color factors into groups which contained different numbers of light and dark genes. The final ratio of dark to light genes in any one group would be the most useful balance for that environment. This process of gaining a light or dark skin is not an adaptation in the evolutionary sense of the organism developing something new to cope with a new environment. All basic factors in skin color were present in the first created man. Adam was designed to ‘cope’.” 28


Yes, black people have built great empires, white people, yellow people and brown people have also done the same. Whites have done evil things to his fellowman, blacks have done the same. Freedom from “mental slavery” will not be truly accomplished by subscribing to a faulty worldview (a mental construct about the origin and purpose of the world) which rejects the truth of the Bible (which speaks to our true origins and purpose) and its central figure; Jesus Christ. After all, true freedom begins with faith in Jesus. As the Scripture says: “To the Jews who had believed him, Jesus said, ‘If you hold to my teaching, you are really my disciples. Then you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.’” (John 8: 31-32, emphasis mine).

The freedom Jesus gives is ultimate freedom which is freedom from the penalty and dominion of sin. This is the kind of freedom truly needed since it is sin that produces the evils of racism and its many spin-offs and side effects, such as reverse racism, which in their quest to correct the evils of racism, many Afrocentrists (like the followers of the NOI mentioned earlier) are often times guilty of producing. As some one rightfully said: “man’s problem isn’t SKIN but SIN. The solution isn’t RACE but GRACE through our Lord Jesus Christ.”
*Roger Marshall is executive director of Project PROBE Ministries, a Barbadian Christian apologetics organisation.



1. Focus on African heritage, Barbados Sunday Sun, Jan. 7 1996, p. 10A
2. Africa’s contribution has been distorted, Sunday Sun, March 18, 1990, p. 31).
3. Daily Nation, April 22, 1996, p. 10A
4. Ivan Van Sertima, Egypt revisited, Second edition, (New Brunswick, Transaction Publishers, 1986), p. 416
5. Ibid, p. 402
6. Ibid, p. 405
7. Ibid 409-410
8. The B’dos Sunday Sun , Jan 7, 1996, p. 10A
9. Sir Julian Huxley, Issues in Evolution, University of Chicago Press, 1960
10. Robert Clark, Darwin: Before and After, p. 115
11. J. Tenenbaum, Race and Reich, p. 211
12. Science, Oct. 31, 1975
13. Marvin Lubenow, Bones of Contention (Grand Rapids, Baker Book House, 1992), p. 58
14. Russell H. Tuttle and D.M. Webb, The Pattern of Little Feet, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Feb. 1989
15. Marvin Lubenow Bones of Contention (Grand Rapids, Baker Book House, 1992)
16. Antonio Snider, Le Création et ses Mystéres Devoilés, Franck and Dentu, Paris, 1859. See also Andrew Snelling, A Scientific Look at Catastrophic Plate Tectonics, posted at: http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v2/n2/A-catastrophic-breakup#fnList_1_5
17. John Raymond Hand, Why I Accept the Genesis Record, pp 43-44, emphasis added.
18. Cited in SCP Journal, vol. 20: 3-4, 1996, p. 59
19. Rev. Clinton Chisholm, article: Christ For Today, Topic: The Trinity, pp. 2-3, May 30, 1999 (emphasis mine)
20. Alexander Hislop, The Two Babylons, p.14, pub. 1858
21. Ibid, p.16
22. Ibid, p.18
23. Ibid, p.18
24. Josh McDowell, Evidence for the Historical Jesus, p. 166
25. Isis, posted at: http://www.themystica.com
26.Josh McDowell, Evidence for the Historical Jesus, p. 166
27. Spiros Zodhiates, TH.D, Hebrew Greek Key Study Bible,
Lexicon to the Old and New Testaments, p. 1575, Nos. 119, and120
28. The Origin of the human races, posted at:


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Is African-Egyptian Religion the True Doctrinal Source of the Judaeo-Christian Faith?

By Rev. Clinton Chisholm*

In our exchange this evening it is important to remember the value of supporting evidence for allegations made, in other words we all have to prove the assertions we make. Our friends will be proposing a basic thesis for which they will provide supportive arguments and evidence in proof of that thesis. But what is the level of proof by which we should operate and evaluate the presentations this evening? In matters of this nature absolute mathematical-type proof or certainty is impossible so that’s out. My colleague and I deem it fair to require only the level of proof expected in a court of law in a civil jurisdiction i.e. proof to a high degree of probability, a preponderance of evidence from which we can all make an inference to the best explanation. Unless and until our friends provide that level of proof in their presentations their basic thesis lacks support and therefore ought to be rejected.

Let me now provide some general pointers for our consideration.

1. If one looks at the forest of Egyptian and Judaeo-Christian religions, superficially, then one can see broad similarities and thus be led to assume borrowing, stealing or dependence. However if one looks at the trees of Egyptian and Judaeo-Christian religions carefully, deeply, then one can see broad and specific differences in philosophical outlook and socio-religious traditions.

Let me illustrate with two test cases. The Hebrews were in Egypt as a subject ‘people group’ for approximately 400 years and one would take it for granted that when they came to document their socio-religious traditions these would betray stark similarities to Egyptian socio-religious traditions. Well the extant documents concerning health regulations provide a shock for that thesis.
Test Case 1 – Comparing Health Care Norms
Consider this, the available medical literature of Egypt, especially the Papyrus Ebers, written about 1552 BC, recommends such remedies for diseases as lizard’s blood, swine’s’ teeth, putrid meat, excreta from animals including human beings, donkeys, antelopes, dogs, cats, and even wasps and flies!! (See Ancient Egyptian Medicine: The Papyrus Ebers, translated from the German by Cyril P. Bryan, 1974, Chapter 15, Diseases of the Skin). Nothing resembling the Mosaic prescriptions re disease control appear in the Egyptian texts! Remember the books of Moses, written about 1400 BC—or to indulge the liberals, any date you choose prior to the 20th century AD— provide modern regulations concerning clean and unclean animals and health practices re dead bodies (see e.g. Numbers 19.11-22; Leviticus 11.32-35).
• Note the repeated suggestion of washing self and clothing as a health precaution (Lev. 11.32-40). Drying clothes would be in the sun (with its bacteriocidal ultra violet rays)
• Open vessels near a dead body are regarded as unclean, and if made of clay (porous) were to be smashed (Lev. 11. 32ff). All of this avoids the build up of culture media for infectious micro-organisms. If not revealed to him by Yahweh, how could Moses have come up with these counter-cultural regulations on his own?
• Moses would have had to know something about the germ theory of disease minus the knowledge of germs. He would have needed to know something about the nutritional requirements of infectious micro-organisms to know that open clay pots with food particles could maintain such organisms; he would have to know about food chains to know that pathogens can be carried in that manner for him to know which animals should be regarded as clean or unclean.
• Please remember that not until the 20th century (after the invention of x-ray technology and the electron microscope) did humankind develop the technological base for understanding the relationship between microscopic organisms and disease, including how and by what means diseases are transmitted.

Which explanatory inference has more power and scope? Remembrance of Egypt or Revelation from Yahweh?

Test Case 2 – Comparing Concepts of Deity
On the issue of concepts of deity, Egypt and the escaped Hebrews were worlds apart despite how the forest appears to the superficial observer. Note the popularity of pictorial and carved depictions of deity in Egyptian sources and the central taboo on graven images of Yahweh in the allegedly borrowed or stolen Ten Commandments. Exodus 20.4-5 says, “You shall not make for yourself an idol, or any likeness of what is in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the water under the earth. You shall not worship them or serve them…” (New American Standard Bible).

Familiarity with this taboo in scripture has softened for us its philosophical and socio-religious radicalism. How could a people so exposed to the worshipping of physical manifestations of Egyptian deities come up willy nilly with this central counter-cultural double-edged taboo on making and worshipping any representation of their deity?
Which explanatory inference has more power and scope? Remembrance of Egypt or Revelation from Yahweh?

Analyze the forest and you can be led astray, analyze the trees carefully and they may just lead you to the God of the Bible.

Let’s pitch a tent here a bit. The claim that Moses got his concept of monotheism from Akhenaten or at least from Egypt, is a fairly common but flawed one among Afrocentrists.

Amenophis/Amunhotep IV, took the name Akhenaten (‘Servant of, or well-pleasing to, Aten’) when he established his cult of the Sun-disc (the god Aten) at Amarna.

The notion of a supreme god or sole god appeared before and after Akhenaten in that the sun-god was for quite a long time, before Akhenaten, regarded as being of high esteem in the theology of Heliopolis and Aten was an old name for the sun-disk.

Later than Akhenaten in the 19th dynasty (early 13th century BC), similar sentiments in praise of the sun (under different names) are expressed in Spell 15 of the Book of Going Forth by Day (popularly called the Book of the Dead).

After Akhenaten’s death, Haremhab (who was Pharaoh about thirteen years after Akhenaten) launched a program to wipe out his name and reign from the records of Egypt. How? By a general destruction and concealment by re-use, of his monuments.

The major written source of Akhenaten’s view of the Aten comes from a hymn, in praise of the sun-god, inscribed in the tomb of Aya, his private secretary (and Pharaoh for about 4 years, 1327-1323 BC). It reads in part,

At daybreak, when thou arisest on the horizon,
When thou shinest as the Aten by day,
Thou drivest away the darkness and givest thy rays…
All the world, they do their work…
O sole god, like whom there is no other!

The monotheism of the ancient Egyptians was radically different in content from that of the Old Testament. Even the Egyptian ‘sole god’ notion is different from the Hebrew ‘one God’ notion. The Hebrew shema (Deut. 6.4) “Hear O Israel…” uses a term for one that suggests composite oneness, as opposed to digital oneness. That word is echad (like a plurality of grapes on a stem constituting one bunch). The Hebrew term for digital oneness, yachid is never used of Yahweh in the Bible.

There is an acute philosophical difference between the theism of the Bible and that of the Egyptians. The God-Creator of the Bible is infinite, eternal and a person whereas that of the Egyptians was the sun or contingent matter. The philosophical difference is that biblical monotheism wields explanatory scope and power re the origin of anything/everything including persons and mind because God is infinite, eternal and personal whereas Egyptian concepts of god lack it because a contingent, material entity, the sun, is giving rise to everything including persons and mind. This is a neglected problem for any alleged theory of stealing, borrowing or influence concerning Egyptian concepts of deity and the biblical one.

The radical differences between Egyptian and Hebraic health care norms and concepts of deity make nonsense of the claim that Egypt was the true source of the Judaeo-Christian doctrines. Indeed the modern nature of the health care norms of the ancient books of Moses can only be explained by invoking Yahweh as the source of these regulations since the technological base for arriving at those prescriptions was not available until the 20th century of the current era!
*Opening presentation by Rev. Clinton Chisholm at a Project PROBE sponsored forum in Barbados on Saturday, February 2, 2008 at the Cave Hill Campus, UWI

African Crossroads and Responsible Reading

By Rev. Clinton Chisholm

My friend Dr. Ikeal Tafari has written two pieces in [the Nation] newspaper raising questions on the historical roots of Israel. Unfortunately the main source he seems to be drawing on is Gary Greenberg’s book The Bible Myth: African Origins of the Jewish People. I say unfortunately because Greenberg (whose work I have scrutinised carefully) makes the popular mistakes of an amateur—assertion without supporting evidence, hasty conclusions without consideration of alternative explanatory options and an inadequate grasp or knowledge of the breadth of literatures, languages and artefacts of the ancient Near East (the world of the Old Testament). For anyone afflicted with Greenberg’s contagious disease the antidote I recommend is a healthy dose of reading anything by Kenneth Kitchen, a world-renowned specialist in the field of Egyptology, Archaeology and ancient Near Eastern Languages and Literatures, especially his 2003 book On the Reliability of the Old Testament.

If you are a responsible reader expecting documented sources of every major idea you will be frustrated by Greenberg but delighted above measure by Kitchen.

Dr. Tafari, in his article of February 11, alleges that Greenberg argues cogently—this is either supreme kindness or credulity— that “The roots of the Jewish people are in 14th century B.C. Africa during the reign of the fiercely monotheistic pharaoh Akhenaten. Moses was the chief priest of the pharaoh’s revolutionary Aten cult…” Moses fled Egypt after Akhenaten’s death and returned with Shechemites after Horemheb’s passing to attempt a coup which “brought the nation to the brink of civil war and ended with a negotiated truce, guaranteeing the insurgents safe passage out of the country – the Exodus!” Give me a break!! Where is the evidence for this hypothesis, in any Egyptian source? Greenberg most certainly does not provide any. If Dr. Tafari believes that this is a cogent argument when does he believe the Exodus happened? Why is this question important?

Well, Akhenaten ruled in Egypt from 1352-1336 BC while Haremhab’s reign was 1323-1295 BC. There are only two viable options for the biblical Exodus among scholars today: either a 15th century BC date (approx. 1447 BC, so Alfred Hoerth, Bruce Waltke, et al) or a 13th century BC date (approx. 1290 BC, so Donald Redford, Kenneth Kitchen et al). If the earlier date for the Exodus is correct then Moses predated Akhenaten by almost a century so that leaves only the later date as a live option for Tafari/Greenberg unless of course Greenberg can dream up another baseless novel hypothesis.

Can you imagine a former chief priest of the Aten cult claiming to have received revelation from another deity called Yahweh, which forbids making and worshipping images of the deity (Ex. 20.4-5)? Bear in mind too that Moses, while addressing the people of Israel, refers to this other deity Yahweh as “our God” (Heb. elohenu Deut. 5.2). Does this sound plausible or credible to you?

Notice that critics of the Bible keep asking for corroboration of what the Bible says but they don’t usually make the same request concerning Egyptian or other documents.

Freemasonry: Spiritual Wickedness in High Places

By Roger Marshall*

Freemasonry is defined as “a peculiar system of morality, veiled in allegory (stories or pictures etc. that represent one thing but mean something else) and illustrated by symbols.”

Why are the Masons called “masons” when the men who make up the organisation are by and large not masons by trade? Furthermore, why is the fraternity known as Freemasonry? To answer that question we have to go back in time to the beginnings of this organisation.

Freemasonry is divided broadly into two categories:

  1. Operative Masonry
  2. Speculative Masonry

Operative Masonry

This category gives us insight into why the terms “Free” and “Masonry” are associated with this fraternity.

Several historians believe that Freemasonry traces its origins back to Medieval times (i.e. 1100s – 1500s) when actual stone masons moved freely from place to place in pursuit of work. These men formed guilds (an organisation of people who do the same job or have the same interests) and employed secret skills and passwords to keep the limited amount of work (mainly Cathedral building) available to them selves. Near their work sites they would set up temporary homes/lodges where they stored tools, organised work rosters, spent their leisure hours and even slept, hence the term “Operative Masonry” because it dealt with the normal day to day operations of stone masons.

Speculative Masonry

In time Cathedral building began to decline which meant less work for the stone masons, however, instead of disbanding their fraternity the freemasons began accepting honorary members into their ranks in order to boost membership. These honorary members were not stone masons by profession but were men of high nobility: doctors, lawyers, merchants etc. They became known as speculative masons and took to themselves the title “Free and Accepted Masons.” Many of these men subscribed to ancient occult philosophy of various kinds. Soon they began to incorporate into the lodge the philosophical, religious and ritual practices of ancient pagan secret mystery cults for men such as Mithraism, a Roman mystery religion which became popular among the military in the late Roman Empire. The Mithraic Mysteries or Mysteries of Mithras was a mystery religion based on the worship of Mithra, the Persian god of the sun.

The spread of Freemasonry

In1717 four fraternal lodges united under the Grand Lodge of England. In 1725 a lodge was organised in Paris and soon Freemasonry spread throughout Europe and the world.

As a British colony, Barbados soon came under Masonic influence when it was introduced to the island in 1740 and the Provincial Grand Lodge of Barbados was founded in that same year. Therefore, Freemasonry has been in Barbados for the past 268 years that’s nearly as long as the organisation has been in existence. Over the years the Masonic lodge has wielded tremendous influence over Barbados’ political, economic and religious affairs. An article online entitled [A] Brief History of Freemasonry in Barbados observes: “Freemasonry has had a long rich history in Barbados, and it will continue to play a major role in the life of the island. I expect that many candidates in the upcoming elections will be Freemasons. Freemasonry has many influential men in its ranks, both here and abroad. These men will continue to contribute to the administration of the island. The international nature of this organization may get additional exposure for tourism, attract foreign investors and allow better access to international finance. In short, a clear understanding of Freemasonry is essential to anyone wishing to comprehend the Barbadian power structure.”

The Religion of Freemasonry

Masons claim that Freemasonry is not a religion or a substitute for religion. For example The Grand Lodge of British Columbia has the following statement on their web site: “Our purpose as freemasons is not that of a religion. Freemasonry lacks the basic elements of religion. Freemasonry is not a religion nor is it a substitute for religion.” This is the standard position put out by Masonic lodges. Masons further claim that Freemasonry is compatible with Christianity.

As we shall see, these claims are far from the truth.

First it should be noted that in order to be a Mason the candidate must express belief in a Supreme Being/God. Secondly, in every Masonic lodge there is an altar. A dictionary definition of an altar is “a religious object dedicated to a god.” In addition, upon the altar one will find an open Bible with the compass and square (Freemasonry’s chief symbol) on it. These items form part of what is called “the furniture of the lodge.”

Further to the obvious religious requirement to be a Mason and the equally obvious religious objects within the lodge, several Masonic authorities have written very candidly about the religious nature of Freemasonry. The late General Albert Pike was one such authority. Pike attained the highest rank in Freemasonry which is the 33rd degree and served as Sovereign Pontiff of Universal Freemasonry for thirty two years from1859 – 1891. He is regarded by many Masons to be “the most knowledgeable American Freemason” and authored the highly acclaimed and universally accepted Masonic doctrinal book Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry which was published in 1871. In that book he wrote the following:

“Every Masonic Temple [lodge] is a Temple of Religion and its teachings are instructions in religion” (Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, p. 213)

Another high ranking 33° Mason, Albert Mackey (1807 – 1881) wrote: “The tendency of all true Masonry is toward religion. If it makes any progress, its progress is to that holy end. Look at its ancient landmarks, its sublime ceremonies, its profound symbols and allegories all inculcating religious doctrine, commanding religious observance, and teaching religious truth, and who can deny that it is eminently a religious institution?”(Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, p.618)


. Albert Pike

Again he said: “Masonry then, is indeed, a religious institution, and on this ground mainly, if not alone, should the religious Mason defend it” (Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, p.619).

In 1903 the Grand Lodge of New York stated the following; “The precepts contained in the ‘Landmarks and Charges of a Freemason’ formulate a creed so thoroughly religious in character that it may well be compared with the formally expressed doctrine of many a denominational church. The Masonic fraternity may, therefore, be quite properly regarded as a religious society” (Martin Short, Inside the Brotherhood, Grafton Books, Collins Publishing Group, 1990, p. 72).

Albert Mackey

In 1954 no less an authority than a Grand Chaplin of the United Grand Lodge of England said: “…The tests of any religion lie (1) in its belief in Almighty God and the Obligation to serve Him; (2) on the performance of duties to God and Man based on the divine law found in a divine revelation (the Bible); (3) [in its possessing] a system of faith and worship.

‘Freemasonry conforms to all these, and those who have met within its sacred precincts have experienced that inspiration which comes from being near to God. It may not be a complete religion since it does not attempt to minister to women and children, and because it is highly selective, but it is nonetheless a religion” (Freemasons Chronicle, Jan. 2, 1954)

Sir John Cockburn, Grand Deacon of England and Deputy Grand Master of Australia once said: “If the title of a religion be denied to Freemasonry, it may well claim the higher ground of being a federation of religions. It is a form of worship in which all religions unite” (Freemasonry, What, Whence, Why, Whither, The Masonic Record, London, 1920).

So we see, contrary to what Masons would have the general public to believe, Freemasonry is a religion, hence the standard position put out by Masonic lodges as to the non-religious nature of Freemasonry turns out to be a lie. As we proceed we shall see that lying and deceiving is one of the hall marks of Freemasonry.

Freemasonry and the Bible

As noted earlier Freemasons claim that Christianity is compatible with Christianity. To support their claim they point out that in every Masonic Lodge there is a copy of the Holy Bible on the Altar and that it is an indispensable part of the furniture of the Lodge. However, this is only the case if the Lodge happens to be in a jurisdiction where Christianity may be the dominant religion. In other jurisdictions where Christianity is not the dominant religion the sacred book of the dominant religion will be placed on the Altar. In the words of Albert Pike: “The Bible is an indispensable part of the furniture of a Christian Lodge, only because it is the sacred book of the Christian religion. The Hebrew Pentateuch in a Hebrew [Jewish] Lodge, the Koran in a Mohammedan [Islamic] one, belong on the Altar; and one of these, and the Square and Compass, properly understood, are the Great Lights by which a Mason must walk and work” (Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, p. 11)

So when it suits them they say it’s not a religious institution and again when it suits them they appeal to its religious nature to downplay the protest of any detractors.

The Lodge has no real uses for the Bible other than to deceive people in a predominantly Christian jurisdiction that Freemasonry is compatible with Christianity. This fact was stated very bluntly by 33rd degree Mason Albert Mackey when he said: “…Masonry has nothing whatsoever to do with the Bible. It is not founded on the Bible; if it was it would not be Masonry; it would be something else” (Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, p.207).

So we see that the Masonic claim that Freemasonry is compatible with Christianity turns out to be yet another lie.

Freemasonry and nature worship

Since Freemasonry is not founded on the Bible, on what then is it founded? The answer is nature worship. In the words of Albert Mackey: “…the religion of Masonry is not sectarian. It admits men of every creed within its hospitable bosom, rejecting none and approving none for his peculiar faith…Its religion is that general one of nature and primitive revelation – handed down to us from some ancient and patriarchal priesthood in which all men may agree and in which no men can differ…” (Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, p.619, emphasis added).

It should be noted that the Bible speaks about God’s general revelation in nature. Romans 1: 18 – 20 says: “The wrath of God is being revealed from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of men who suppress the truth by their wickedness, since what may be known about God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them. For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse.”

However, as we shall see, the religion of Freemasonry involves the worship of nature which is what the Bible condemns in Romans 1: 21 – 25 which says: “For although they knew God, they neither glorified him as God nor gave thanks to him, but their thinking became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened. Although they claimed to be wise, they became fools and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images made to look like mortal man and birds and animals and reptiles.

“Therefore God gave them over in the sinful desires of their hearts to sexual impurity for the degrading of their bodies with one another. They exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served created things rather than the Creator—who is forever praised. Amen.”

The Chief Deity of Nature Worship

The chief deity in nature was the sun. “He” was known to the Phonecians/Caananites as Baal or Tammuz; to the Persians as Mithras; to the Babylonians as Bel, Marduk or Shamash; to the Egyptians as Osiris, Horus, Ra; to the Hindus of India as Surya, Om, Vivasvan; to the Greeks as Apollo; to the Romans as Saturn, Sol, etc. Sun worship is denounced throughout the Bible. One example is Ezekiel 8: 1 – 16 which reads as follows:

“In the sixth year, in the sixth month on the fifth day, while I was sitting in my house and the elders of Judah were sitting before me, the hand of the Sovereign LORD came upon me there. I looked, and I saw a figure like that of a man. From what appeared to be his waist down he was like fire, and from there up his appearance was as bright as glowing metal. He stretched out what looked like a hand and took me by the hair of my head. The Spirit lifted me up between earth and heaven and in visions of God he took me to Jerusalem, to the entrance to the north gate of the inner court, where the idol that provokes to jealousy stood. And there before me was the glory of the God of Israel, as in the vision I had seen in the plain.

“Then he said to me, ‘Son of man, look toward the north.’ So I looked, and in the entrance north of the gate of the altar I saw this idol of jealousy.

“And he said to me, ‘Son of man, do you see what they are doing—the utterly detestable things the house of Israel is doing here, things that will drive me far from my sanctuary? But you will see things that are even more detestable.’

“Then he brought me to the entrance to the court. I looked, and I saw a hole in the wall. He said to me, ‘Son of man, now dig into the wall.” So I dug into the wall and saw a doorway there.

“And he said to me, “Go in and see the wicked and detestable things they are doing here.’ So I went in and looked, and I saw portrayed all over the walls all kinds of crawling things and detestable animals and all the idols of the house of Israel. In front of them stood seventy elders of the house of Israel, and Jaazaniah son of Shaphan was standing among them. Each had a censer in his hand, and a fragrant cloud of incense was rising.

“He said to me, ‘Son of man, have you seen what the elders of the house of Israel are doing in the darkness, each at the shrine of his own idol? They say, ‘The LORD does not see us; the LORD has forsaken the land.’ Again, he said, ‘You will see them doing things that are even more detestable.’”

“Then he brought me to the entrance to the north gate of the house of the LORD, and I saw women sitting there, mourning for Tammuz. He said to me, ‘Do you see this, son of man? You will see things that are even more detestable than this.’

“He then brought me into the inner court of the house of the LORD, and there at the entrance to the temple, between the portico and the altar, were about twenty-five men. With their backs toward the temple of the LORD and their faces toward the east, they were bowing down to the sun in the east.”

The Generative and Productive Principle

To the pagans the sun deity constituted the generative principle of nature (i.e. the power of pro-creation) and was viewed by them as abiding in the sun as his heavenly abode and in the phallus (the male sex organ) as his earthly abode. The Solar disk was a symbol of the sun and the obelisk or a slender stone placed on or near the altar was the symbol of the phallus

The sun god Shamash receives homage; his emblem, the solar disk, appears on the altar; 9th century bc.

The sun god’s female consort was the earth, known to the Greeks as Gaia, to the Phoenician/Caananites as Asherah, Ashtoreth and Astarte; to the Babylonians as Ishtar (“Easter”) and to the Egyptians as Isis. As the Earth/Mother Goddess she constituted the nourishing and productive principles in nature. She was also worshipped as the Moon goddess. Her symbol was a cone shaped stone (representing the female breast) placed on or near the altar, or a tree trunk/wooden pole known as an “Ashera.” The Ashera pole was phallic in nature and represented female fertility through male and female sexual union, which was an integral part of the worship of this deity at her shrines. As the heathen worshipped the generative and productive principles of nature they engage in sexual orgies as they sought union with and favors from their deities. The idea behind all this was that as the sun-god impregnates the earth with its rays generating life, the earth or Mother Goddess in return nourished and produced that life in crops etc. The male and female devotees, in seeking virility and fertility like and from their gods, incorporated sexual orgies in their worship rituals under inspiration of the gods themselves.

The worship of the pagan generative and productive principles in nature is condemned in the Bible. Deuteronomy 12: 1 – 4 says: “These are the decrees and laws you must be careful to follow in the land that the LORD, the God of your fathers, has given you to possess—as long as you live in the land. Destroy completely all the places on the high mountains and on the hills and under every spreading tree where the nations you are dispossessing worship their gods. Break down their altars, smash their sacred stones and burn their Asherah poles in the fire; cut down the idols of their gods and wipe out their names from those places. You must not worship the LORD your God in their way.”

Deuteronomy 16: 21 – 22 says: “Do not set up any wooden Asherah pole beside the altar you build to the LORD your God, and do not erect a sacred stone, for these the LORD your God hates.”

Unfortunately, the Israelites often disobeyed God’s commands which brought His judgment upon them. 1 Kings 11: 4 – 5 & 11 is one example. It says: “As Solomon grew old, his wives turned his heart after other gods, and his heart was not fully devoted to the LORD his God, as the heart of David his father had been. He followed Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and Molech the detestable god of the Ammonites. So Solomon did evil in the eyes of the LORD; he did not follow the LORD completely, as David his father had done…So the LORD said to Solomon, “Since this is your attitude and you have not kept my covenant and my decrees, which I commanded you, I will most certainly tear the kingdom away from you and give it to one of your subordinates.”

2 Kings 17: 9 – 10 is yet another example. It says: “The Israelites secretly did things against the LORD their God that were not right. From watchtower to fortified city they built themselves high places in all their towns. They set up sacred stones and Asherah poles on every high hill and under every spreading tree… They forsook all the commands of the LORD their God and made for themselves two idols cast in the shape of calves, and an Asherah pole. They bowed down to all the starry hosts, and they worshiped Baal… Therefore the LORD rejected all the people of Israel; he afflicted them and gave them into the hands of plunderers, until he thrust them from his presence”

That is what nature worship entailed but is it really what Freemasonry entails today? The answer is yes! This fact can clearly be seen and understood from the meaning of Freemasonry’s own symbols, the layout and position of the Lodge room, the rituals of Masonry and by the admission of its own high ranking authorities and adepts.

Masonic Symbols

The Compass and Square is Masonry’s most recognized symbol. It represents the same generative and productive principles of ancient pagan nature worship. But don’t take my word for it; let’s hear Masonic authority Albert Pike from his book Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. Pike said: “It is the great, fertile, beautiful MOTHER Earth that produces, with limitless profusion of beneficence, everything that ministers to the needs, to the comfort, and to the luxury of man. From her teeming and inexhaustible bosom come the fruits, the grain, the flowers, in their season. From it comes all that feeds the animals which serve man as laborers and for food. She, is the fair…

“On the other hand, it is the light and heat of the Sun in the Heavens, and the rains that seem to come from them, that in the Springtime make fruitful this bountifully-producing Earth, that restore life and warmth to her veins, chilled by Winter, set running free her streams, and beget, as it were, that greenness and that abundance of which she is so prolific. As the procreative and generative agents, the Heavens and the Sun have always been regarded as male; as the generators that fructify the Earth and cause it to produce…

“The Hermaphroditic [male/female] figure [Compass and Square] is the Symbol of the double nature anciently assigned to the Deity, as Generator and Producer, as BRAHM and MAYA among the Aryans, Osiris and Isis among the Egyptians. As the Sun was male, so the Moon was female; and Isis was both the sister and the wife of Osiris. The Compass, therefore, is the Hermetic [i.e. occult/hidden/secret] Symbol of the Creative Deity [the sun-god], and the Square of the productive Earth or Universe” (Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, p. 850 – 851)

Former 33rd degree Mason, the late Jim Shaw, explained it even clearer when he said: “…The Square represents the female (passive) generative principle, the earth, and the baser, sensual nature; and the Compass represents the male (active) generative principle, the sun/heavens, and the higher, spiritual nature. The Compass, arranged above the Square, symbolizes the (male) Sun, impregnating the passive (female) Earth with its life-producing rays. The true meanings, then are two fold: the earthly (human) representations are of the man and his phallus, and the woman with her receptive eteis (vagina). The cosmic meaning is that of the active Sun (deity, the Sun-god) from above, imparting life into the passive Earth (deity, the earth/fertility goddess) below and producing new life’ (James Shaw and Tom McKenney, Deadly Deception, ©1988, pages 143-144)

The letter “G” in the centre of the Compass and Square represents the deity of Freemasonry which they refer to as The Great Architect of the Universe (T.G.A.T.O). Many people believe that it represents the God of the Bible but in reality it represents the Generative principle in nature i.e. the act of sexual union between male and female (whether human or animal) of which mankind is believed to be the personal expression of the interplay between the Sun-god and the Earth/Mother Goddess. In the words of Masonic author J.D. Buck in his book Symbolism of Mystic Masonry: “The only personal God Freemasonry accepts is humanity in toto. God (the G.A.T.O) personifies himself, that is expresses that potency of himself which personality is, through man. Humanity therefore is the only personal god that there is” (Symbolism of Mystic Masonry, p. 216).

Another Masonic pagan sex symbol is the Hexagram. Speaking of this symbol Masonic authority Albert Mackey, writing in his book The Symbolism of Freemasonry said: “The triangle pointing downward is a female symbol corresponding to the yoni [female sex organ] and the upward pointing triangle is the male, the lingam [male sex organ/phallus] … When the two triangles are interlaced, it represents the union of the active and passive forces in nature; it represents the male and female elements” (The Symbolism of Freemasonry, p. 195, 219, 361, pub. 1869).

Still another symbol is the Triple Tau and Triangle within a Circle. Masonic author, R. Swinburne Clymer, in speaking of this Masonic symbol states: “The Phallus, or Lingam, and the Yoni, the male and female emblems of generation, are found in the triangle and the tau” (Clymer, The Mysteries of Osiris or Ancient Egyptian Initiation, Quakertown, PA, The Philosophical Publishing Company, 1951, p. 131).

Regarding the Triangle itself and its meaning to Masons, Masonic author, R.H. MacKenzie, states: “among Egyptians, the base [of the triangle] represented Osiris, or the Male Principle; the perpendicular, Isis, or the Female Principle…” (Kenneth R.H. MacKenzie, The Royal Masonic Cyclopaedia of History, Rites, Symbolism, and Biography , New York, J.W. Bouton, 1877, p. 743)

The imagery of all this is aptly portrayed in Rihanna’s Umbrella music video which is punctuated with occult Masonic sex symbolism (for more details: see my article Umbrella – The Occult Masonic Connection)

Washington Monument Obelisk in St. Peter’s Square Obelisk in Bridgetown Obelisk tomb stone

The Obelisk is another pagan, occult, sex symbol that is important to Freemasonry. It can be found adorning the graves of many Masons. The Washington Monument in Washington DC, erected in honour of Master Mason George Washington, is an Obelisk. The monument in St. Peter’s Square in front of the Vatican, headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church, is an Obelisk. The Cenotaph in Bridgetown Barbados is also an Obelisk but what does it represent? From the article The Benben Stone & Obelisks posted on the Discovery Channel website we read: “Some scholars believe the conical Benben stone represented the very first mound of earth and marked the point where the first rays of sunlight fell from Re [the sun god of Egypt]. The conical shape marked the Pharoah’s way to heaven by ascending the rays of the sun.

“Others believe the stone was actually an iron-rich meteorite and represented the seed of the earlier god, Atum [identified as one and the same as Ra/Osiris] who created the earth through masturbation: the word ‘benben’ means ‘to copulate’. The pyramid-shaped cap on an obelisk is called a Benbenet and, combined with the shaft, obelisks could represent Atum’s divine phallus and his seed” (posted at http://www.discoverychannel.co.uk/egypt/monuments/benben/index.shtml ).


Yet another Masonic sex symbol is the Point within the Circle. From Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry we read the following: “The point within the circle was then originally the symbol of the sun; and as the lingam [male sex organ/phallus] of India stood in the centre of the lunette [female sex organ], so it [the point] stands within the centre of the Universe, typified by the circle, impregnating and vivifying it with its heat…[In Masonry] it is the same thing, but under a different form, as the Master and Wardens are symbols of the sun, the Lodge of the universe, or world, just as the point is the symbol of the same sun, and surrounding circle of the universe” (Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, p.573).

Interestingly enough, the Obelisk in St. Peter’s Square, when viewed from above forms the Masonic/pagan Point (symbol of the male sex organ) within the Circle (the female sex organ/yoni/lunette/vagina)! This is not surprising since both systems (Romanism and Freemasonry) are drawing from the same fountainhead of pagan religion which the Bible calls: “MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH” (REV. 17: 5) Additionally, many persons in the Hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church from priests to Bishops, Archbishops, Cardinals, Monsignors etc, have been and are Freemasons (for a few examples visit the web site http://www.crossspot.net/ldprophet/Freemasons.htm ).

The Obelisk in St. Pete’s Square forming the Masonic/pagan Point within the Circl
The All-Seeing Eye, which adorns Masonic certificates and is displayed at the back of the US one dollar bill, is another Masonic Sun-god symbol. In the words of Albert Pike: “The Sun…his is the All – Seeing Eye in our Lodges” (Morals and Dogma, p. 477)

Masonic Certificate Back of US one dollar bill


Yet again Pike said: “…the Blazing Star has been regarded as an emblem of Omniscience, or the All – Seeing Eye, which to the ancients was the Sun” (Morals and Dogma, p. 506)

Eye of the Egyptian sun god Horus

This symbol is also being used in the pop music industry by Jay – Z, who, from all the available evidence is himself a FreeMason (for more details: see my article UmbrellaThe Occult Masonic Connection).

Sun Worship and the Layout of the Lodge

The lay out of the Lodge room, where meetings are held, also represents ancient pagan Sun worship.

Every Lodge is situated due East and West. The Worshipful Master of the Lodge, who presides over meetings, has his chair situated in the east of the Lodge. And every Mason is enjoined by the order to travel east in search of Light. All this is derived from ancient sun worship as the devotees directed their faces toward the east, the place of the rising sun.

Albert Pike attested to this fact when he said: “Our Lodges are said to be due East and West, because the Master [the Worshipful Master of the Lodge] represents the rising Sun…” (Morals and Dogma, p. 366)

Another admission that the Lodge room represents Sun worship comes from Edmond Ronayne, past Master of Lodge 639 in Chicago, when he wrote: “The Lodge room then is brought before us as a symbol of the Universe, governed by the sun-god…the Lodge room is the real heaven (in miniature), where the “god of nature” – “the G.A.O.T.U” – always presides, where his symbol is always displayed, where his worship is always practiced…”(The Master’s Carpet by Edmond Ronayne, p. 301 – 302)

33rd degree Mason Manley P. Hall said it this way: “Sun worship played an important part in nearly all the early pagan Mysteries. The solar Deity…was slain by wicked ruffians [during the long cold winter months] who personified the evil principle of the universe. By means of certain rituals and ceremonies, symbolic of purification and regeneration, this wonderful God was brought back to life [during the months of Spring] and became the Saviour of His people…in Masonry, the ancient religious and philosophical principles still survive” (Manley P. Hall, The Secret Teachings of all Ages, pp. 21 – 22). Thus we see that the Masonic religion is all about sun and sex worship.

Masonic sympathizer and advocate Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831 – 1891) was the founder in 1875 of another powerful occult secret society, which still exists today, called the Theosophical Society (Ms. Blavatsy and the seal of the Theosophical Society are seen in the accompanying photos). In 1877 she published a book entitled Isis Unveiled in which she approvingly quoted Albert Pike who summarized it all for us this way, when he said: “Our adversaries numerous and formidable as they are, will say and will have a right to say that our Creative Principle is identical with the Generative Principle of the Indian and Egyptian, and may be symbolized as it was symbolized anciently by the linga [penis]. To accept this in lieu of a personal God is to abandon Christianity and the worship of Jehovah, and to return to wallow in the styles of Paganism” (“Proceedings of the Supreme Council of Sovereign Grand Inspectors-General of the Thirty-third and Last Degree, etc., etc. Held at the city of New York, August 15, 1876,” pp. 54, 55, cited in Isis Unveiled, Volume II, p. 377).

Initiation and Oaths

One can only join the Lodge on invitation. The first three degrees the candidate goes through are known as Blue Lodge Masonry. These degrees are: 1st degree Entered Apprentice, 2nd degree Fellow Craft 3rd degree Master Mason. In each degree blood curdling oaths are repeated by the candidate to ensure utmost secrecy. The Entered Apprentice swears the following: “I do most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, without the least equivocation, mental reservation, or self evasion of mind in me whatever; binding myself under no less penalty than to have my throat cut across, my tongue torn out by the roots and my body buried in the rough sands of the sea at low water mark, where the tide ebbs and flows in twenty-four hours, should I ever knowingly or willingly violate this my solemn oath or obligation as an Entered Apprentice Mason. So help me God.”

In the Fellow Craft degree he swears: “…to have my left breast torn open and my heart and vitals taken from thence and thrown over my left shoulder and carried into the valley of Jehosaphat, there to become a prey to wild beasts of the field and vultures of the air…”

In the Master Mason degree he swears under no less penalty than “…to have my body severed in two in the midst, and divided to the north and south, and my bowels burnt to ashes in the center, and the ashes scattered before the four winds of heaven, that there might not the least track or trace of remembrance remain among men, or Masons, of so vile and perjured a wretch as I should be…”

Deceiving its own

While Masons in the Blue Lodge swear themselves to secrecy over the teachings of Masonry, the true meaning of Freemasonry and its symbols is kept secret from them by the adepts i.e. those who have attained to the higher degrees in the Lodge. Again, in the words of Albert Pike:

“The Blue Degrees are but the outer court or portico of the Temple. Part of the symbols are displayed there to the Initiate, but he is intentionally misled by false interpretations. It is not intended that he shall understand them; but it is intended that he shall imagine he understands them. Their true explication is reserved for the Adepts, the Princes of Masonry. The whole body of the Royal and Sacerdotal Art was hidden so carefully, centuries since, in the High Degrees, as that it is even yet impossible to solve many of the enigmas which they contain. It is well enough for the mass of those called Masons, to imagine that all is contained in the Blue Degrees; and whoso attempts to undeceive them will labor in vain, and without any true reward violate his obligations as an Adept. Masonry is the veritable Sphinx, buried to the head in the sands heaped round it by the ages.

“Masonry, like all the Religions, all the Mysteries, Hermeticism [occultism] and Alchemy, conceals its secrets from all except the Adepts and Sages, or the Elect, and uses false explanations and misinterpretations of its symbols to mislead those who deserve only to be misled; to conceal the Truth, which it calls Light, from them, and to draw them away from it. Truth is not for those who are unworthy or unable to receive it, or would pervert it….” (Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, p. 819)

One of the degrees of the Adepts is the Holy Royal Arch degree, which is said to be Freemasonry’s “Supreme Degree” it is primarily an English Order. Another Order of the Adepts is the American Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Degree (the Order to which Albert Pike belonged). The English equivalent is the Ancient and Accepted Rite of England and Wales also known as the Rose Croix.

The 7th degree Royal Arch ritual says in part “Darkness is for those without” which is a reference to those who are only within the Blue Lodge. It is in the Royal Arch degree that the supposed long lost name of God is revealed to the candidate, the name is JAHBULON (pronounced Yah-Bul-On). This name is said to be so “sacred” and “holy” that no Royal Arch Mason is allowed to repeat it to anyone. In fact it can only be said by three Royal Arch Masons huddled together with each one saying but one syllable of the name, one after the other in rotation three times.

However, JAHBULON is a far from sacred or holy, rather it is a compound name taken from the name of three different gods who Masons claim are but one and the same deity. The first syllable “JAH” (“Yah”) is the Hebrew name of the God of the Bible Yahweh. The second syllable “BUL” is a convenient substitute for BAL, Bel or Baal the Sun-god of the Phoenicians. The third syllable “ON” is the name of an ancient Egyptian city which was the centre of the worship of Osiris the Sun-god. The Greeks called the city Heliopolis (the “City of the Sun”).

JAHBULON is therefore a blasphemous name which seeks to present the idea that the God of the Bible is no different from the pagan Sun-deity a.k.a. the Generative principle. However, even the Adepts know that this is another of their lies, intended to make a mockery of God, because, as Pike admitted, the God of the Bible “Long known as… Adonai [another name for Yahweh] [is]…the rival of Bal and Osiris” (Morals and Dogma, p. 697).

If the Royal Arch Mason ever reveals this “well guarded” secret to the un-initiated, which includes members of the Blue degrees, then in accordance with his oath he is in danger of having his “head cut off [and] his brains exposed to the burning rays of the sun”

Since Freemasonry deceives its own then it has no difficulty in deceiving the general public under the guise of being a charitable organisation. We shall now see, yet again from its own statements, how Masons are taught to deceptively interact with their own families and the general public regarding their Masonic involvement and moral dealings.

Masonic Morals and Ethics

The following information is cited in the book: The Masonic Report by C.F. McQuaig, who in turn cites (among others) The Hand book of Freemasonry, authored by Edmond Ronayne, Past Master of Keystone Lodge number 639, Chicago Illinois.

“Question: Are Masons truthful?

Answer: In the Masonic “Hand Book” p. 74 we read: ‘If your wife, or child, or friend, should ask you anything about your initiation – as, for instance, if your clothes were taken off, if you were blindfolded, if you had a rope around your neck, etc., you conceal…hence, of course, you must deliberately lie about it about it. It is part of your obligation, nevertheless. But you know if you live in strict obedience to your obligation, you’ll be free from sin’ (Hand book of Freemasonry, p. 74)

“Question: Are Masons ethical?

Answer: In the Masonic ‘Hand Book’ p. 183, we read: ‘Whenever you see any of our signs made by a brother Mason, and especially the grand hailing sign of distress, you must always be sure to obey them, even at the risk of your life. If you’re on a jury, and the defendant is a Mason, and makes the Grand Hailing sign, you must obey it; you must disagree with your brother jurors, if necessary, but you must be sure not bring the Mason guilty, for that would bring disgrace upon our order. It may be perjury, to be sure, to do this, but then you’re fulfilling your obligation, and you know if you live up to your obligations you’ll be free from sin’

“Question: Are Masons honest?

Answer: In the Masonic “Hand Book” p. 184, we read: “If you cheat, wrong, or defraud any other society or individual, it is entirely your business. If you cheat the Government even, Masonry cannot and will not touch you, but be very careful not to cheat, wrong, or defraud a Brother Mason or a lodge, whoever else you may defraud; live up to your obligation, and you’ll be free from sin’

“Question: Do Masons practice deceit?

Answer: In the Masonic “Hand Book” p.183, we read: “You must conceal all the crimes of your brother Masons, except murder and treason, and these only at your own option, and should you be summoned as a witness against a brother Mason be always sure to shield him. Prevaricate, don’t tell the whole truth in this case, keep his secrets, forget the most important points. It may be perjury to do this, it is true, but you’re keeping your obligations, and remember if you live up to your obligation, you’ll be free from sin”

“Question: Do Mason have the well being of all men at heart, or only their follow Masons?

Answer: In the Masonic “Hand Book” p. 184, we read: “Whether you quarrel with or strike other men is none of our business, but your obligations enjoin you not to strike a brother Master Mason. It may be wicked and sinful, to be sure, to strike any man, or to quarrel with anybody, but our rules make no provision except for the protection of Masons only, and if you live in strict obedience to your obligation, you’ll be free from sin.”

“Question: Are Masons taught that moral chastity be practiced among all peoples, or among the families of Master Masons only?

Answer: In t he Masonic “Hand Book” p. 184, we read the “Chastity Covenant” of the Master Mason: “Furthermore, that I will not violate the chastity of a Master Masons wife, mother, sister, or daughter knowing them to be such. This gives you full permission, my dear sir, to do as you please outside the Masonic order, but you must always respect the female relatives of Masons.”

That’s a brief look into some aspects of Masonic “morality” which proves to very immoral.

Freemasonry and Universalism

Under the maxim of the brotherhood of man and the Fatherhood of God, Freemasonry promotes Universalism, the notion that all religions lead to God, but of course as we have already seen this is not the God of the Bible but the Generative principle of nature. As Albert Pike put it: “Masonry, around whose altars the Christian, the Hebrew, the Moslem, the Brahim [Hindu], the followers of Confucius and Zoroaster can assemble as brethren and unite in prayer to the one God who is above all the Baalim, must needs leave to each of its Initiates to look for the foundation of his faith and hope to the written scriptures of his own religion. For itself it finds those truths definite enough, which are written by the finger of God upon the heart of man and on the pages of the book of nature” (Morals and Dogma, p.226)

This philosophy is the driving force behind much of today’s Inter-faith worship.

Freemasonry and Witchcraft

As a direct outgrowth of its pagan philosophy the religion of Freemasonry also promotes the use of witchcraft which was an integral part of the ancient pagan religions upon which it is based. As Albert Pike wrote:

“There is in nature one most potent force by means whereof a single man, who could possess himself of it, and should know how to direct it, could revolutionize and change the face of the world.

“This force was known to the ancients…if science can but learn how to control it, it will be possible to change the order of the seasons, to produce in night the phenomena of day, to send a thought in an instant around the world [i.e. mental telepathy] to heal or slay at a distance [i.e. magical healing and death magic], to give our words universal success, and make the reverberate everywhere”

“…the Adepts of the middle ages called it the elementary matter of the great work. The Gnostics held that it compassed the ingenious body of the Holy Spirit, and it was adored in the secret rites of the Sabbat [Witch’s Sabbath] of the Temple, under the hieroglyphic figure of Baphomet or the hermaphroditic [male/female] goat of Mendes” (Morals and Dogma, p. 734).


The Order of the Eastern Star and Satanism

Symbol of The Order of the Eastern Star

The symbol of the androgynous (male and female) Masonic Order of the Eastern Star is the inverted pentagram of Satanism which is the symbol of Baphomet /Satan.

Lucifer the real “light” of Freemasonry

At the end of the trail of Masonic “Light” coming from the pagan Sun-god, is the real “light” source, the archenemy of God and man, Lucifer a.k.a. Satan. In Pike’s own words: “Lucifer, the Light – bearer! Strange and mysterious name to give to the Spirit of Darkness! Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! It is he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish souls [a reference to those who are not the Adepts of Masonry]! Doubt it not!” (Morals and Dogma, p. 321).

33rd degree Mason Manley P. Hall in his book The Lost Keys of Freemasonry elaborates. He said: “When the Mason learns the key to the warrior on the block is the proper application of the dynamo of living power, he has learned the mystery of his Craft. The seething energies of Lucifer are in his hands and before he may step onward and upward, he must prove his ability to properly apply energy” (The Lost Keys of Freemasonry, p. 48).


Freemasonry is an anti-Christ religious institution founded on satanic deception masquerading as “light.” The Bible has long blown the cover on this satanic strategy in 2 Cor. 11: 14 – 15 which reads: “And no wonder, for Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light. 15It is not surprising, then, if his servants masquerade as servants of righteousness. Their end will be what their actions deserve.” Hence, no true Christian should be involved in it whatsoever see 2 Corinthians 6: 14 – 18 which reads as follows:

14 Do not be yoked together with unbelievers. For what do righteousness and wickedness have in common? Or what fellowship can light have with darkness?
15 What harmony is there between Christ and Belial? What does a believer have in common with an unbeliever?
16 What agreement is there between the temple of God and idols? For we are the temple of the living God. As God has said: “I will live with them and walk among them, and I will be their God, and they will be my people.”

17 “Therefore come out from them
and be separate, says the Lord.
Touch no unclean thing, and I will receive you.”
18″I will be a Father to you,
and you will be my sons and daughters, says the Lord Almighty

And again as Ephesians 5: 11 – 12 reads: 11″ Have nothing to do with the fruitless deeds of darkness, but rather expose them.” 12″For it is shameful even to mention what the disobedient do in secret”.
*Roger Marshall is executive director of Project PROBE Ministries a Barbadian Christian apologetics organisation.

The Uniqueness of Jesus Christ

Any attempt to advance a case for the uniqueness (or ‘one-of-a-kindness’) of Jesus Christ is problematic. Problematic, not only because of the need to delve into comparative religion and literature (for which exercise we scarcely have time or space) but because the view abounds amongst some scholars that if there was a historical Jesus Christ he is indistinguishable from the Christ of faith that emerges from the pages of the New Testament documents.
Even if the view of such scholars be exaggerated the tough-minded modern Christian needs to face some realities lurking behind such a view. I mention and elaborate briefly on just one.
Our main sources for the life of Jesus Christ, the canonical gospels, contain a mixture of claims made by Jesus Christ and about Jesus Christ, and though possible, it is not always easy to distinguish the one from the other. So then the gospels are neither wholly historical nor wholly theological they are in essence theological histories or theological biographies – interpretations of, or perspectives on, the historical life of Jesus Christ that betray the significance of Jesus Christ for the particular writers. The literary intent of the writers will affect their literary content!
Though it might be somewhat disturbing for certain Christians we must grapple with the fact that the differences in detail that we find in the gospel writers as they deal with the same subject strongly suggest that the gospel writers were often more concerned with the essence of an incident or statement than with minute detail or word for word accuracy.1
So then, with reference to ‘what Jesus said’ what we get from a gospel writer may not necessarily be the very words of Jesus [verbatim] the ipsissima verba but never less than the very voice of Jesus [paraphrase, summary, essence] the ipsissima vox. Of course at times we do get the very words of Jesus.
If one is honest and scholarly with the New Testament documents it is difficult to read them and not pick up certain strong claims made by Jesus which would prove his significance and even uniqueness. Let us explore some of these now.
Jesus Christ claimed to be ‘Son of God’. The issue here is not so much prooftexting for mention of the expression ‘Son of God’2 but facing the unanimous testimony of the gospels that Jesus addressed God as ‘Father’ in his praying. As John 19.7 suggests, the Jewish accusers at Jesus’ trial before Pilate saw the self- description of ‘son of God’ as a species of blasphemy deserving of death. There is much that is significant and unique here. But let us provide the unanimous evidence and then make the points re significance and uniqueness.
Mark 14.36 – “Abba, Father, all things are possible to thee…”
Mt. 11.25 = Lk. 10.21 – “I thank thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth..” 3
Luke 23.46 – “Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit…”
John 11.41 – “Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me.”
Were we to chart the statistics on Jesus’ reference to God as his father the result would be as follows, 4

Mk. Q5 Lk. Mt. Jn.
‘Father’ 3 4 4 31 100
‘the Father’ 1 1 2 1 73

The evidence suggests that Jesus almost always prayed with reference to God as ‘Father’.6 But this is significant and unique. It is significant that the texts of the gospels, at times, use the Aramaic term Abba, copied into Greek letters, and not merely a Greek translation of the term into pater. Significant as well that Paul, in Romans and Galatians, uses the same Aramaic term when speaking of the Spirit praying through Christians (Rom. 8.15-16; Gal. 4.6). But why retain the Aramaic term? Seemingly, because it was so characteristic of Jesus’ prayer in his mother tongue and so unusual, so unique in Jewish prayer!
You see, Abba in traditional usage was an intimate family term reserved for the family setting and for the head of the family on the lips of a child. It roughly corresponds to our ‘dada’ or ‘papa’.
No Jew would ordinarily use this term with reference to God because the term is too familiar. Yet Jesus, seemingly, uses the term characteristically because of his special, unique status as ‘Son of God’ and seemingly encouraged that kind of intimacy in prayer in his disciples.
Let me reinforce and summarize the point we are making here in the words of Michael Green,

…Jesus brought an entirely new picture of God into the world. He was Father. You can
search Islam and you will not find that name of Father among the ninety-nine names of
God. You will search Hinduism or Confucianism in vain. This is amazing good news
and it is unique. Jesus used the name Abba of his relationship with God…He came to
show us that God is Father, and that there is nothing he wants more than to enfold us in
his arms and welcome us home.7

Jesus claimed to be God or equal to God. To appreciate the value of the gospel records in this regard we must remember the intensely monotheistic beliefs of the Jews and the early Christians. Even if they are giving us only the ipsissima vox of Jesus, they, as monotheists, put some very strong assertions of deity on the lips of Jesus concerning himself. Take John 8.24, “Therefore I said to you that you will die in your sins; for if you do not believe that I am He, you will die in your sins.” Shockingly, there is no predicate after the declaration “if you do not believe that I am” prompting the translators to add the pronoun He, though there is no companion word in the Greek. Jesus simply and suggestively declares ‘I am’, in Greek ego eimi (which every alert Jew listening to Him would associate with God’s declaration in the Greek version of the Old Testament at Ex. 3.14.) Why would they record such bold and preposterous claims unless Jesus made them?
It is the boldness of Jesus’ claims re his deity, and the centrality of his personhood to his claims that render him unique among the greatest religious leaders of the world. A. J. Hoover has a point when he contends,

Moses didn’t claim to be Yahweh; Socrates didn’t claim to be Zeus; Zoroaster didn’t
claim to be Ahura Mazda; Mohammed didn’t claim to be Allah; Buddha didn’t claim to
be Brahma. Only Christ claimed to be one with the God who sent him (John 10:30)
Familiarity has dulled our ears to the wonder of his claims.8

Jesus was no mere guide to truth or to God. No, he claimed to be much more than that and ties himself to his teaching and claims.
Mahatma Gandhi once declared that whether or not there was an historical Jesus, the Sermon on the Mount would still be true for him.9 But note some crucial claims in the Sermon on the Mount and elsewhere in Jesus’ teachings that raise hard questions for Gandhi’s approach.
Jesus inextricably linked his claims to his person by saying ‘Blessed are you if you are persecuted on my account’ (Mt. 5.11); ‘lose your life for my sake…’(Mk. 8.35); and the unique, if arrogant and exclusivistic, ‘I am the way, and the truth and the life; no one comes to the Father but by me’ (Jn. 14.6) .10
Even if these statements are not the very words of Jesus it is difficult to see them as less than the very voice of Jesus, and either way these claims are bold and unique!
There is something uniquely shocking about the claims of Jesus at his trial before the Jewish Sanhedrin. Hear the critical question of identity, ‘I adjure you by the living God, tell us if you are the Christ, the Son of God?’ (Mt. 26.63). The answer in the Synoptics is ‘You have said so’ (Mt. 26.64 and Lk. 22.69) or ‘I am’ (Mk.14.62). But there is a crucial additional element which all three synoptic evangelists mention, on the lips of Jesus, with reference to himself; the Old Testament reference to the son of man seated ‘at the right hand of power’.
The expression ‘at the right hand of power’ is a Hebraism suggesting the immediate presence of deity! Jesus was claiming to be equal to God and Caiaphas, recognizing this shocking ‘blasphemy’ recoiled by doing something shocking as well; contrary to Levitical law (Lev. 21.10) he rent his priestly garments!
Jesus claimed a certain cruciality and finality for his mission. One of the more popular words in Jesus’ teaching is ‘kingdom’ or the fuller phrase ‘kingdom of God/Heaven’11 , and the idea emerges that it is Jesus who has ushered in or inaugurated this kingdom or sovereign rule of God. So Jesus declares in Mk. 1.15, ‘The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand, repent and believe the gospel’. In Lk. 11.20 he declares. ‘If it is by the finger of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you’.
In one of his parables, The Wicked Tenants (Mk. 12.1-9), Jesus portrays himself, by implication, as the final, perfect representative of God and, most importantly, he suggests that response to him in time will determine one’s destiny in eternity!
Jesus claimed superiority and authority over three things that were supreme for Jews; Torah-the law of Moses (Mt. 5.31-38), the Temple (Mt. 12.6) and the Sabbath (Mt. 12.8).
Beyond direct claims, as such, we pass to equally important information that bolster claims for the uniqueness of Jesus.
We observe the feature of the unrebuked worship of Jesus in the literature of monotheistic Jews who believed that only God should be worshipped. So whereas the apostles and angels refused worship (Acts 14.11-15; Rev. 19.10; 22.8-9) Jesus Christ accepted and encouraged people’s worship of him (Mt. 14.31-33; 15.25-28). Indeed the very Jewish-Christian document, Hebrews, asserts that the Father commands such worship of Jesus (1.6).
Another critical dimension of the uniqueness of Jesus Christ relates to the unique convergence in him of three unprecedented sets of miracles; fulfilled Messianic prophecies, a sinless life and resurrection from the dead.
The Messianic prophecies require involved treatment, much more than we can attempt in this short article, but suffice it to say that the fulfilment in Jesus’ birth, life and passion of so many minute elements of numerous Old Testament Messianic prophecies cuts against the accidental explanation.12
Nothing can be found in any religious literature that matches the calibre of Jesus’ prediction and the eventual fulfilment of his own death and resurrection (Mk.9.30-32; Mt. 17.22-23; Lk. 9.43-45; Mk. 16.1-8; Mt. 28.1-10;Lk. 24.1-12; Jn. 20.1-10).
Concerning the character of the life of Jesus we point out that this is pivotal because it is important for grounding one’s claims. The evidence here must be weighed carefully because in addition to the estimate of Jesus’ character implied in Jesus’ own statements we have, for the most part, the estimate of his followers and the odd comment of others as recorded in the New Testament.
Let us begin with the fact that Jesus had a very high estimate of his own character. This emerges in the fact that though he and all the Jews would be aware of the perfection of God alone, yet he indicated in his statements concerning his death that his life would be given for the remission of sins (Mt. 26.28). On one occasion he challenged his detractors to level an indictment against his character with the words ‘which of you convicts me of sin?’ (Jn. 8.46).
This suggestion of sinlessness by Jesus is all the more startling, unique even, when you pit against that claim the admission of other founders of world religions.
Confucius, near to his death, is alleged to have said, “In letters I am perhaps equal to other men; but the character of the perfect man, carrying out in his conduct what he professes, is what I have not yet attained to.”13 In the Qur’an, Muhammad’s moral flaws are clearly indicated.14
The disciples of Jesus, perhaps understandably, had a high view of Jesus’ character and even though some of the writers were Jews they affirmed Jesus’ sinless perfection. So Peter said, ‘He committed no sin, no guile was found on his lips’ (1 Pet. 2.22). A similar affirmation comes from John, ‘You know that he appeared to take away sin and in him is no sin’ (1 John 3.5), Paul, ‘For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin…’ (2 Cor. 5.21), the writer of Hebrews declares that Jesus was tempted like all of us yet without sin (4.15).
Additionally, we have to make something of the odd comment from other than Jesus himself and his followers. Josephus, the Jewish historian, in the traditional text, not so much in the Slavonic text, speaks highly of Jesus’ character.15
Within the gospels Pilate and Herod, upon hearing the charges and evidence against Jesus, are portrayed as having pronounced Jesus innocent (Lk. 23. 15f). Similar verdicts come from the Centurion at the cross and from one of the condemned men crucified with Jesus (Lk. 23.41, 47).
Jesus’ enemies (some of the Jewish leaders) often charged him with breaches but the details, as given in the gospels, reveal more the sovereignty of Jesus in dealing with Jewish traditions, customs and interpretations of them.
It is this overall impression of the moral superiority of the life of Jesus that has left him as the most influential moral figure in Western civilization and history.
So then when one encounters Jesus Christ one encounters an individual who makes, and for whom is made, shocking and unique claims. In Jesus Christ one encounters an individual whose life commands respect because of its moral uniqueness. In Jesus Christ one will encounter a unique individual, a response to whom now, will determine one’s destiny in eternity.

Rev’d Clinton A. Chisholm, D.D., M.A., M.A., F.C.A., B.A., B.Th., L.R.S.M., A.T.C.L., is the Associate Pastor of the Metropolitan Baptist Church in Hollywood, Florida.
© Clinton Chisholm, May, 2006

1William Harris argues that only five percent of the people of the first century could read and write (see his Ancient Literacy, Harvard University Press, 1989). “In such a culture, accuracy means something like rendering the tradition in a way that is faithful. That’s what you have in earliest Christianity – people passing on sayings, stories and the like, attempting to be faithful to the tradition but not aiming for verbatim accuracy,” (Stephen J. Patterson in The Search for Jesus: Modern Scholarship Looks at the Gospels, edited by Hershel Shanks, Biblical Archaeology Society, 1994, 33). Return to 1

2As James Dunn correctly said, “…there was nothing particularly unique about calling someone ‘son of God’ at the time of Jesus…Oriental rulers, particularly in Egypt, were called sons of God – a title occasionally applied to the Jewish king as well (as in II Sam. 7.14)…” The Evidence for Jesus (SCM Press Ltd., 1985), 49. Return to 2

3Mt. 11.27 is quite shocking, “All things have been delivered to me by my Father; and no one knows the Son except the Father, and no one knows the Father except the Son and any one to whom the Son chooses to reveal him.” Jewish scholar, C.G. Montefiore, recognizing the unique and powerful claims in the statement expressed a hope that scholars would prove the statement false, because, if genuine, it would support the contentions of orthodox Christianity (see A.M. Hunter, The Work and Words of Jesus, [Westminster Press, 1973], 106). Return to 3

4The statistics are taken from Dunn, 44.Return to 4

5Q is a symbol (derived from the German Quelle, meaning ‘source’) that scholars use for a hypothetical document which Matthew and Luke allegedly used in writing their gospels. This would be material (almost exclusively sayings of Jesus) common to Matthew and Luke but not found in Mark. Return to 5

6The only clear exception seems to be the cry of dereliction on the cross, ‘My God, my God…’, Mk. 15.34, no doubt influenced by Ps. 22.1. Return to 6

7Who is this Jesus? (Hodder & Stoughton, 1990), 34-35. Return to 7

8The Case for Christian Theism, (Baker Book House, 1980), 169. Return to 8

9Ibid, 170. Return to 9

10Compare the more liberal statement of the Bhagavad Gita (Hindu scripture) ‘In any way that men love me in that same way they find my love: for many are the paths of men, but they all in the end come to me’, 4.11. Note as well the elements of similarity between Gita 9.18 and John 14.6! Return to 10

11In Matthew (47), Mark (18), Luke (37) and John (5). Return to 11

12For fuller treatment see John Ankerberg, et al, The Case for Jesus the Messiah, [The John Ankerberg Evangelistic Association, 1989], passim, Robert Newman in Evidence for Faith, edited by John Warwick Montgomery, [Probe Books, 1991], 203-214, Norman Geisler, et al, Answering Islam, [Baker Book House, 1993], 248-250 and Ralph O. Muncaster, Examine the Evidence, [Harvest House Publishers, 2004], 325-366. Return to 12

13Cf. Analects of Confucius 7.33. Return to 13

14See Geisler, 169-177. Return to 14

15F.F. Bruce, Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament, [Hodder and Stoughton, 1974], 32-53. See also Edwin Yamauchi in Michael J. Wilkins et al, Jesus Under Fire, [Zondervan Publishing House, 1995], 212-213. Return to 15